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Flashcards in Upper Urinary Tract Anatomy Deck (39):
1

How does the Urinary Tract pass urine from production to excretion?

The Kidneys produce urine which then moves to the ureters.
The Ureters drain the urine into the bladder.
The Bladder stores and empties the urine.
The Urethra excretes the urine (and semen in males)

2

What are the 2 parts of the Urinary Tract?

Upper Urinary Tract: Kidneys and Ureters
Lower Urinary Tract: Bladder and Urethra

3

Which parts of the Urinary Tract are located in the Abdomen?

Kidneys and Proximal Parts of the Ureters are located in the Retroperitoneum of the Abdomen

4

Which parts of the Urinary Tract are located in the Pelvis?

Distal Parts of the Ureters
Bladder
Proximal Part of the Urethra

5

Which parts of the Urinary Tract are located in the Perineum?

Distal Part of the Urethra

6

Which part of the Kidney is in direct contact with the Peritoneum?

Anterior Surface of the Kidney

7

What are the Medial Anatomical Relationships of the Kidney?

Medial aspect of the kidney has a Hilum.

This is where the:
- Renal Vein
- Renal Artery
- Ureter
enter and exit the Kidney

8

List the Renal Artery, Renal Vein and Ureter in the order to Most Anterior to Posterior

Renal Vein (Anterior)
Renal Artery
Ureter

9

What are the Lateral Anatomical Relationships of the Kidney?

Antero-lateral abdominal wall, which consists of the:
External Oblique
Internal Oblique
Transversus

10

List the Anterior Relationships of the Kidney from closest to the kidney to the furthest away

Renal Capsule (closest to the kidney)
Perinephric Fat
Deep Renal Fascia
Paranephric Fat
Visceral Peritoneum (furthest away)

11

What are the Posterior Anatomical Relationships of the Kidney?

Posterior Abdominal Wall, which consists of the Psoas Major and Quadratus Laborum muscles.
Ribs 11 and 12 (i.e. The Floating Ribs)

12

From which artery does the Renal Artery originate?

Abdominal Aorta

13

To which vein does the Renal Vein drain?

IVC

14

Are the IVC and Abdominal Aorta situated next to each other?

NO.
IVC sits more anterior to the Abdominal Aorta - important for CT Scans!

15

What are the Vertebral Levels for each kidney?

Left kidney: T12 - L2
Right kidney: L1 - L3 (situated lower due to the liver sitting superiorly)

16

Which Quadrant and Abdominal Region do the Kidneys lie in?

Right and Left Upper Quadrants.
Right and Left Lumbar/Flank Regions.

17

Should the Kidney be Smooth/Rough in Contour?

Smooth.
Rough is pathological.

18

Why do you ask the Patient to breathe in for Renal Examinations?

Breathing in will cause the kidneys to descend and therefore, be trapped between the palpating hands for examination.

19

How do you palpate the Right Kidney?

Anteriorly within the Right Upper Quadrant

20

How do you palpate the Left Kidney?

Posteriorly within the Left Lumbar/Flank Region, just inferior to Rib 12

21

What does the Left Kidney lie posterior to?

Stomach
Hilum of Spleen
Splenic Vessels
Tail of Pancreas

22

What does the Right Kidney lie posterior to?

Liver
Hepatorenal Recess
Ascending Colon
Right Colic Flexure
2nd Part of the Duodenum

23

Why is the Hepatorenal Recess important?

This space between the Liver and Kidney is one of the deepest parts of the abdomen when the patient is supine, meaning that if there is abnormal fluid present, it will gather there.

24

What is the Arterial Supply to the Urinary Tract?

Renal Arteries supply the Kidneys

Ureters receive blood supply from Branches of the:
- Renal Arteries
- Abdominal Arteries
- Common Iliac Arteries
- Internal Iliac Arteries
- Vesical (Bladder) Arteries

25

Where does Lymph from the Urinary Tract drain?

Renal Lymph drains into the Lumbar Lymph Nodes, located around the Abdominal Aorta

Ureter Lymph Nodes drain into the Lumbar and Iliac Lymph Nodes

26

What is the difference between a Supra-Renal and Infra-Renal AAA?

Supra-Renal AAA is above the Renal Arteries
Infra-Renal AAA is below the Renal Arteries

27

Why is Renal Artery Stenosis associated with Infra-Renal AAA?

Atherosclerosis may cause Renal Artery Stenosis, which can lead to Infra-Renal AAA

28

Why is Renal Artery Stenosis associated with Supra-Renal AAA?

Supra-Renal AAA may lead to Renal Artery Stenosis

29

What are some Anatomical Abnormalities of the Urinary Tract?

Bifid Renal Pelvis
Bifid Ureter
Horseshoe Kidney
Ectopic Pelvic
Retrocaval Ureter

30

Name the 2 compartments of the Kidney

Outer Renal Cortex
Inner Renal Medulla

31

What is 1 Functional Unit of a Kidney called?

Nephron

32

Describe the drainage process of Urinary Filtrate from the Nephrons

Urinary Filtrate comes from the Nephron and initially collects in the Minor Calyx.
The Minor Calyces go on to form Major Calyces and eventually, the Renal Pelvis, through which the Urinary Filtrate is drained into the Ureter

33

What are the 3 Sites of Anatomical Constriction in the Urinary Tract?

1. Pelviureteric Junction
2. Ureter crossing the Iliac Bifurcation
3. Ureteric Orifice

34

Why are the Sites of Anatomical Constriction important?

Renal Calculi (Stones) or Blood Clots could become lodged in these areas, leading to Ureter Blockage

35

If the Ureter is blocked, will both kidneys be affected?

No, only the corresponding kidney to the blocked ureter.

36

If the Bladder is blocked, will both kidneys be affected?

Yes
E.g. due to an Expanding Tumour compressing on both ureters

37

What are the consequences of Ureter Blockage?

Renal Failure

38

What is Hydronephrosis?

Renal enlargement due to fluid and pressure build-up in the kidney

39

What is the reason behind the Intense Pain in Hydronephrosis?

Enlarged kidney pressing on the rigid renal capsule