Flashcards in ENT Oral Anatomy Deck (24):
What is the Oral Cavity Proper and the Oral Vestibule?
Oral Cavity Proper = Everything Above the Tongue and Below the Palate i.e. The Space in-between.
Oral Vestibule = Region located between the Posterior Aspect of the Lips and Anterior Aspect of the Teeth
What muscles form the floor of the mouth i.e. the Muscular Diaphragm?
Mylohyoid (innervated by CN V3)
Geniohyoid (innervated by C1)
Which gland creates a gap in the mouth that can result in infection tracking or tumour spread?
What are the 3 Major Salivary Glands?
1. Parotid Glands
2. Submandibular Glands
3. Sublingual Glands
What is the function and innervation of the minor salivary glands?
Release basal secretions to keep mouth moist
Parasympathetic innervation via CN VII
Where are the Salivary Gland secretions released?
Parotid Gland > Parotid Duct > Upper 2nd Molars
Submandibular Gland > Submandibular Duct > Lingual Caruncle.
The Sublingual Gland > Several Ducts, located Superiorly.
What are the nerve innervations of the Salivary Glands?
Chorda Tympani > Sublingual and Submandibular Glands
CN IX > Parotid Glands
What is the nerve innervation for the Anterior (Horizontal) 2/3 of the Tongue?
General Sensory Innervation from CN V3
Special Sensory (Taste) Innervation from CN VII
What is the nerve innervation for the Posterior (Vertical) 1/3 of the Tongue?
General Sensory and Special Sensory (Taste) Innervation from CN IX
Papillae are taste buds. True/False?
Papillae contain taste buds or sensory cells.
Which taste buds sense taste?
Senses touch, temperature and pain
Which tongue muscle is NOT innervated by CN XII?
Palatoglossus, innervated by CN X
Through which foramen does CN XII exit the cranium?
How do you test the CN XII?
Ask the Patient to Stick their Tongue Out.
If BOTH CN XII’s are Functional, the Tongue Tip remains in the MIDLINE upon Protrusion
In Unilateral CN XII Damage, the Tongue Tip will POINT TOWARDS the Side of the Injured Nerve as the CN XII PUSHES the Tongue Out and so, will cause the Tongue to Deviate to the Injured Side
What is the blood supply to the tongue?
Lingual Arteries, which branch off the External Carotid Artery
What is the difference in the routes between the tongue innervating arteries and nerves?
The Arteries pass MEDIAL to the Hyoglossus Muscle
The Nerves pass LATERAL to the Hyoglossus Muscle
What are the folds of the hard palate called?
Reduce friction against food in mouth
What are the Bilateral Muscles of the Soft Palate of the Mouth?
Tensor Veli Palatini
Levator Veli Palatini
What is the main innervation for the Bilateral Muscles of the Soft Palate of the Mouth?
Except Tensor Veli Palatini, which is innervated by CN V3
How do you clinically test CN X?
Here, ask the Patient to say "Ahhhhhh" which will cause the CN X to Tense all the Muscles.
If the CN X Nerves are Functioning Normally, the Uvula should Lift Straight Up in the MIDLINE
If there is Unilateral CN X Nerve Pathology, the Uvula will be Pulled AWAY FROM the Non-Functioning Side by the Normal Side, pulling the Tongue AWAY from the Side of Dysfunction.
What are the muscles of the outer circular layer of the Pharynx?
Superior Constrictor Muscle
Middle Constrictor Muscle
Inferior Constrictor Muscle
Act to Push the Food Bolus Inferiorly towards the Oesophagus
What are the muscles of the inner longitudinal layer of the Pharynx?
Act to pull the larynx superiorly to shorten pharynx during swallowing
What is the main innervation to the pharyngeal muscles?
Except for Stylopharyngeus which is CN IX