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Flashcards in Endocrinology Deck (40)
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1

Primary endocrine disorders involve what organ(s)?

target endocrine organs e.g. gonads, adrenal cortex, thyroid, mammary gland, liver, kidney

2

Secondary endocrine disorders involve what organ(s)?

anterior pituitary/adenohypophysis

3

Tertiary endocrine disorders involve what organ(s)?

hypothalamus

4

List actions of cortisol

- gluconeogenesis - increase blood sugar

- suppress immune system - reduce inflammation

- reduce bone formation

- raise blood pressure

5

T3 and T4 function to ____________

determine basal rate of metabolic reactions

6

Prolactin functions to ___________. It is known as the _________ out of the trophs.

inhibit secretion of FSH, TSH, GH, ACTH

Balancer

7

Aspirin is contraindicated in hyperthyroidism because _________

aspirin competes with T3 and T4 on liver hepatocytes, leading to higher T3/T4 levels in the blood

8

The most common etiology of hypothyroidism is _______
The most common auto-immune etiology of hypothyroidism is ___________

aging

Hashimoto's disease

9

The most common hyperthyroid disorder is _______.

The most common etiologies are ______.

Grave's disease

Toxic adenoma, toxic goiter, thyroiditis.

10

Describe the pathogenesis of Grave's disease

auto-immune reaction results in production of self-antibodies (IgG), over-stimulating TSH receptors of the thyroid gland

11

What are hallmark features of Grave's disease?

exopthalmos, heat intolerance, nervousness, insomnia, fine and silky hair alopecia, alternating diarrhea, tremors, irregular menstruations or AMENORRHEA,

12

Describe the pathogenesis of Hashimoto's disease.

Immune system produces immunoglobulins against thyroid follicles, eventually damaging core substate thyro-globulin

13

What are clinical presentations of hypothyroidsim?

cold intolerance, facial myxedema, fatigue, weight gain, brittle and dry hair alopecia, decreased BMR, irregular/HEAVY menstruation

14

Cushing Syndrome is an endocrine condition characterized by excessive production of ___________

cortisol

15

The most common cause of Cushing's syndrome is _________

long term steroid medications to suppress inflammation

16

Cushing's disease is a type of Cushing's syndrome where _______

anterior pituitary adenoma secretes excessive ACTH which stimulates adrenal gland to produce more cortisol, aldosterone, sex hormone precursors

17

In Cushing's disease, ACTH levels are ____ and cortisol levels are _____

elevated

elevated

18

What are clinical hallmarks of Cushing's syndrome?

buffalo hump, central obesity, thin lower limbs, hirsutism, aterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, altered mental status (depression, anxiety, psychosis) due to excesses cortisol

19

Cretinism is an outdated medical term for _________. It is generally reversible in the following time frame ________.

-congenital hypothyroidism

-within 1-2 months after birth

20

The hallmark of congenital hypothyroidism is ______

profound mental retardation

21

Gigantism is an excess _____ production initiated __________. Acromegaly is an excess GH production with the beginning of _________, after _________of the long bones are already closed.

-GH production

-before puberty

-adulthood

-epiphyseal plates

22

Addison's Disease is ________ insufficiency. The causes of Addison's disease are ___________

- adrenal

- largely unknown, possibly infection, neoplasia, auto-immune

23

Describe typical menses in hypothyroidism.
Describe typical menses in hyperthyroidism.

- heavy, painful menses

- oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea

24

What is the potential impact of pituitary adenoma on vision?

enlarged pituitary can impact the optic chiasm, eventually leading to blindness

25

ACTH and MSH share the same _______. Thus, endocrine disorders where ACTH levels are elevated such as _______ will also show signs of darkened skin pigmentation.

precursor molecule (proopiomelanocortin / POMC)

Cushing's disease, primary Addison's disease

26

Primary Addison's disease is a deficiency in ______ release from the __________, thus leading to compensation and over production of ________. Signs and symptoms include __________ as a result of primary ________ deficiency.

-glucocorticoid

-adrenal cortex

-ACTH (MSH)

-fatigue, muscle weakness, hypotension, craving salt, brown/bronze discolorations

-cortisol

27

Primary Addison's disease is also known as __________

brown diabetes

28

Secondary or tertiary Addison's disease present with all the signs of primary Addison's except ___________ because ____________

-brown/bronze discolorations

-hypothalamus is not secreting CRH or anterior pituitary not secreting ACTH so MSH is not secreted either

29

Addisonian crisis indicates __________. It can be caused by __________

-severe adrenal insufficiency

-bacterial meningitis, abruptly ceasing long term steroid medication

30

Describe the pathology of primary diabetes mellitus.
Describe the pathology of secondary diabetes mellitus.

- auto-immune injury of beta pancreatic islet cells

- resistance of insulin receptors on cellular membranes