Flashcards in Endocrinology Deck (40)
Primary endocrine disorders involve what organ(s)?
target endocrine organs e.g. gonads, adrenal cortex, thyroid, mammary gland, liver, kidney
Secondary endocrine disorders involve what organ(s)?
Tertiary endocrine disorders involve what organ(s)?
List actions of cortisol
- gluconeogenesis - increase blood sugar
- suppress immune system - reduce inflammation
- reduce bone formation
- raise blood pressure
T3 and T4 function to ____________
determine basal rate of metabolic reactions
Prolactin functions to ___________. It is known as the _________ out of the trophs.
inhibit secretion of FSH, TSH, GH, ACTH
Aspirin is contraindicated in hyperthyroidism because _________
aspirin competes with T3 and T4 on liver hepatocytes, leading to higher T3/T4 levels in the blood
The most common etiology of hypothyroidism is _______
The most common auto-immune etiology of hypothyroidism is ___________
The most common hyperthyroid disorder is _______.
The most common etiologies are ______.
Toxic adenoma, toxic goiter, thyroiditis.
Describe the pathogenesis of Grave's disease
auto-immune reaction results in production of self-antibodies (IgG), over-stimulating TSH receptors of the thyroid gland
What are hallmark features of Grave's disease?
exopthalmos, heat intolerance, nervousness, insomnia, fine and silky hair alopecia, alternating diarrhea, tremors, irregular menstruations or AMENORRHEA,
Describe the pathogenesis of Hashimoto's disease.
Immune system produces immunoglobulins against thyroid follicles, eventually damaging core substate thyro-globulin
What are clinical presentations of hypothyroidsim?
cold intolerance, facial myxedema, fatigue, weight gain, brittle and dry hair alopecia, decreased BMR, irregular/HEAVY menstruation
Cushing Syndrome is an endocrine condition characterized by excessive production of ___________
The most common cause of Cushing's syndrome is _________
long term steroid medications to suppress inflammation
Cushing's disease is a type of Cushing's syndrome where _______
anterior pituitary adenoma secretes excessive ACTH which stimulates adrenal gland to produce more cortisol, aldosterone, sex hormone precursors
In Cushing's disease, ACTH levels are ____ and cortisol levels are _____
What are clinical hallmarks of Cushing's syndrome?
buffalo hump, central obesity, thin lower limbs, hirsutism, aterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, altered mental status (depression, anxiety, psychosis) due to excesses cortisol
Cretinism is an outdated medical term for _________. It is generally reversible in the following time frame ________.
-within 1-2 months after birth
The hallmark of congenital hypothyroidism is ______
profound mental retardation
Gigantism is an excess _____ production initiated __________. Acromegaly is an excess GH production with the beginning of _________, after _________of the long bones are already closed.
Addison's Disease is ________ insufficiency. The causes of Addison's disease are ___________
- largely unknown, possibly infection, neoplasia, auto-immune
Describe typical menses in hypothyroidism.
Describe typical menses in hyperthyroidism.
- heavy, painful menses
- oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea
What is the potential impact of pituitary adenoma on vision?
enlarged pituitary can impact the optic chiasm, eventually leading to blindness
ACTH and MSH share the same _______. Thus, endocrine disorders where ACTH levels are elevated such as _______ will also show signs of darkened skin pigmentation.
precursor molecule (proopiomelanocortin / POMC)
Cushing's disease, primary Addison's disease
Primary Addison's disease is a deficiency in ______ release from the __________, thus leading to compensation and over production of ________. Signs and symptoms include __________ as a result of primary ________ deficiency.
-fatigue, muscle weakness, hypotension, craving salt, brown/bronze discolorations
Primary Addison's disease is also known as __________
Secondary or tertiary Addison's disease present with all the signs of primary Addison's except ___________ because ____________
-hypothalamus is not secreting CRH or anterior pituitary not secreting ACTH so MSH is not secreted either
Addisonian crisis indicates __________. It can be caused by __________
-severe adrenal insufficiency
-bacterial meningitis, abruptly ceasing long term steroid medication