Neurology Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology 2 > Neurology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neurology Deck (31)
Loading flashcards...
1

Consciousness is understood as an ability of an individual to identify self in three dimensions, namely ____________

Who am I? Where am I? What time is it now?

2

The level of consciousness is considered intact if an individual is able to _____________

Consciousness has two important components: ____ and _____. Describe each of them

perceive and respond on internal and external stimuli

level of alertness (alert, confusion, stupor, delirium, coma)

content (short and long memory, judgment, abstract thinking, ability to read, calculate, draw simple designs)

3

_______ reflex is always checked to determine level of consciousness. The sensory part of this reflex is accomplished via ______ and the motor component of this reflex is accomplished via ______

Pupillary and accomodation

CN II

CN III

4

The sensory component of the corneal reflex is accomplished by _____ and the motor response if accomplished by ______

CN V

CN VII

5

The sensory component of the gag reflex is accomplished by _____ and the motor response if accomplished by ______

CN IX

CN X

6

Posterior cerebral arteries supply blood to ______. These areas are responsible for ________

occipital lobes of the cerebrum, brainstem, cerebellum

vision, vital centers, maintenance of equilibrium

7

Middle cerebral arteries supply ________. These areas are responsible for ________

lateral parts of cerebrum

function of upper part of trunk and upper extremities, speech areas of the brain

8

The most commonly affected arteries in stroke are ________

middle cerebral arteries

9

________ arteries as the origin of middle cerebral arteries are climbing to the Circle of Willis via _____.

Internal carotid

cavernous sinuses

10

Anterior cerebral arteries supply _______. Their injury will reflect on dysfunction of _________

superior parts of brain and diencephalon

lower trunk, lower extremities and diencephalon

11

The types of CVA are ________. 90% of CVA is ____ in nature.

ischemic (embolic), hemorrhagic

ischemic

12

The major etiology of ischemic stroke is _______ in combination with ________

systemic arterial hypertension

atherosclerosis and thrombosis

13

Hemorrhagic stroke might be caused by ________

malignant arterial hypertension associated with aneurysms within the Circle of Willis or trauma

14

In CVA where upper motor neurons are damaged, the spinal reflexes will be _______, Babinski's reflex will be _______, the muscles will be ______ on _____ side, and the muscles will __________

exaggerated

present

spastic

affected (contra-lateral)

fasciculate

15

In Lower Motor Neuronal Injury, the spinal reflexes will be ________, and muscles will be _________ on ______ side of the body.

diminished/absent

weaker

contra-lateral

16

LMNs are situated in ________ of the spinal cord

ventral horns

17

Epidural hemorrhage/hematoma is aka _________. It occurs mostly as a result of trauma to _______, which are superficially located in the ___________

Talk and Die syndrome

meningeal arteries

grooves of the skull above Dura

18

Subdural hemorrhage/hematoma is usually a result of ______. It occurs from injured _______ within _______. Patients may present with complaints of ________

trauma

veins of brain

subdural space

chronic headaches increasing in severity

19

Subarachnoid hemorrhage/hematoma is a result of ________. It usually presents with ___________

trauma or spontaneous bleeding from the Circle of Willis

the worst headache of one's life

20

Hydrocephalus results in ___________. Non-communicating hydrocephalus is mostly present as a ________. Communicating hydrocephalus is most common in _________ as a degeneration of ___________

motor and sensory deficit, dementia in adults,

congenital malformation, adhesions due to meningitis or meningo-encephalitis

geriatric population

arachnoid granulations

21

Dementia is a profound loss of ________. The most common type of dementia is _________. Other causes include ___________.

content of consciousness

Alzheimer's disease

vascular dementia, post-stroke, Parkinson's hydrocephalus, brain trauma, some drugs

22

Parkinson's disease presents with _________

muscular spasticity, rigidity, hypokinesia, bradykinesia, mask-like face, resting tremor

23

Lou Gehrig's disease is aka _________. The disease manifests as _________ of the motor neurons and the corresponding muscles with complete preservation of ________

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

gradual atrophy

all sensations

24

ALS affecting UMNs results in ____________
ALS affecting LMNs results in __________

spasticity, exaggerated reflexes, fasciculation

flaccidity of muscles, eventually complete paralysis

25

Signs of meningitis include ____________

severe headache, photophobia, Brudzinksi's sign, Kernig's sign.

26

Describe quality of CSF in bacterial meningitis

turbid, increased protein, decreased glucose, neutrophilia in blood, increased BP upon CSF withdrawal

27

Primary headaches are due to ________ while secondary headaches are due to _________

idiopathic

hypertension, trauma, increased intra-cranial pressure

28

Cushing's triad is a set of signs/symptoms indicating ________. Describe the triad

increased intra-cranial pressure

unilateral change of sensations and/or muscle weakness, projectile vomiting, severe headache

29

Signs/symptoms of increased intra-cranial pressure include _______________

uneven pupils as mental status declines, HTN w/ bradychardia, and abnormal respiration

30

PERLA indicates _________

pupils are equal, responsive to light and accomodation

31

Seizures can be caused by ________. Seizures without identifiable cause is __________

hypoxia, alcoholism, DM, febrile disease

epilepsy