Female Reproductive System Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Female Reproductive System Disorders Deck (43)
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1

______ secreted by the hypothalamus controls female reproductive cycle. It stimulates _____ to secrete LH and FSH

GnRH
anterior pituitary

2

In a female, FSH functions to ________ while LH stimulates _________

initiate growth of follicles that secrete estrogen

ovulation & promotes formation of corpus luteum which secretes estrogens, progesterone, relaxin, inhibin

3

In the menstrual cycle estrogen and inhibin function to suppress _______

FSH secretion

4

The hormone that controls the female reproductive cycle is _____, which is synthesized in _______

GnRH
Hypothalamus

5

When does secondary oocyte formation takes place in females?

During puberty

6

The corpus luteum secretes ________

estrogen, inhibin, progesterone

7

The function of progesterone in luteal phase of menstrual cycle is __________

- inhibit GnRH secretion
- stimulate endometrial growth
- decrease contractility of the uterine smooth muscle

8

The function of estrogen in females is ________

- stimulate bone and muscle growth

- stimulate endometrial growth

- maintain secondary female characteristics

- maintain mammary glands

9

Pap smears are recommended beginning at the age of _____ and subsequently every _______ until age of ____

21

year, more frequently for high risk patients e.g. sex workers

70

10

The most common cause of menstrual disorders is ______. Other endocrine imbalances of the ________ can also influence FRS disorders

thyroid disorder

adrenal, ovary, anterior pituitary

11

salpinges (_______) + oophora (______) = ________

fallopian tubes

ovaries

adnexa (accessory organs of the uterus)

12

Primary dysmenorrhea is pain upon menstruation associated with _____________. Secondary dysmenorrhea is pain upon menstruation due to ___________

beginning of ovulation cycles / menstrual life

underlying pathology, e.g. retroverted uterus, adenomyosis, endometriosis, fibroids

13

Females with ______ amenorrhea never had a menses and are prone to _________ because ___________

primary

intrauterine hyperplasia

uterine lining has never been sloughed and replaced

14

"Break-through" bleeding is _________. It is a possible sign of ______________

irregular vaginal bleeding while on oral contraceptives

pelvic inflammatory disease, cancer

15

PID is most commonly an inflammation of _________ and possibly ________. Symptoms include ___________

fallopian tubes

cervix, uterus, ovaries

exceptional adnexal and cervical tenderness, localized abdominal/pelvic pain (uni or bilateral), break-through bleeding, peritoneal irritation, fever, nausea, vomiting

16

The most important risk factors leading to PID include ____________

- young age of sexual activity

- STD

- multiple sexual partners

- IUD

- neglect for routine GYN checkup

17

PID is the leading cause of _______. It is one of the leading causes of __________

ectopic pregnancy

infertility

18

A Pap smear checks for __________

dysplasia of cervical epithelium

19

Describe the progression of cervical cancer

dysplasia of epithelium -> intra-epithelial neoplasia -> carcinoma in situ -> invasive cervical carcinoma

20

In the menstrual cycle, the follicular phase in the ovary corresponds with the __________ in the uterus. The luteal phase in the ovary corresponds with the _________ in the uterus.

proliferative phase

secretory phase

21

Contrast fertilization and conception

Fertilization occurs when spermatozoa meets ovum

Conception occurs when fertilized ovum implants in uterus

22

Primary amenorrhea is defined as __________

1) absence of secondary sexual characteristics by age 14 with no menarche

2) normal secondary sexual characteristics but no menarche by 16 years of age

23

Endometrial hyperplasia usually results in conditions of prolonged estrogen excess and can lead to metrorrhagia, defined as _________, menorrhagia, defined as ________ or menometrorrhagia.

-uterine bleeding at irregular intervals

- excessive bleeding w/ menstrual periods

24

Postmenopausal uterine bleeding can indicate _______

endometrial / uterine cancer

25

Adenomyosis is a FRS characterized by the presence of __________.Symptoms include ________. It is most commonly diagnosed in ___________

-ectopic enodmetrial tissue w/in the myometrium

-painful and/or profuse menses

-multi-parous females, ages 35-50

26

Endometriosis is a FRS characterized by ectopic location of __________. The most common ectopic location is _________

-endometrial cells outside the uterine cavity

-posterior cul de sac / pouch of Douglas

27

The most typical clinical manifestations of endometriosis are __________

dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, infertility

28

Catamenial pneumothorax is __________ caused by _______

-menstruation related pneumothorax

-endometriosis of pleura of lung

29

A woman of childbearing age presents with acute abdominal pain. _____ must be considered in the differential diagnosis.

Ectopic pregnancy

30

Endometriosis is diagnosed by _________

laparoscopy with lesion biopsy