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Flashcards in Blood & Blood Disorders Deck (78)
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1

Blood is specialized ________ tissue derived from the _______ germ layer

connective

mesodermal / mesenchymal

2

The process of blood formation is known as ________

hematopoiesis / hemopoiesis

3

The major bones containing bone marrow generating blood cells are __________

flat bones of axial skeleton - sternum, ribs, pelvic bones
vertebrae
skull

4

The functions of blood are _________

-carrying O2 and CO2

-buffering and enabling metabolic reactions

-elimination of waste

-delivery of nutrients

-distribution of hormones and other chemical messengers

-clotting and prevention of excessive bleeding

-immune defense

5

Whole blood is composed of _________

plasma - amino acids, nutrients, proteins, nitrogenous waste, electrolytes, gases

formed elements - WBCs, platelets, RBCs

6

Red bone marrow functions to ________
Yellow bone marrow functions to ________

generate formed elements of blood

nourish and support red bone marrow

7

Myelophthisis is __________. This process is seen in disorders such as __________

the degeneration of red bone marrow with the substitution by yellow bone marrow

blood / bone marrow cancers

8

Active bone marrow is generally termed ________

myeloid

9

When pluri-potent stem cells develop into white blood cell colonies, they differentiate into ________ progenitors and ______ progenitors

myeloid progenitors

lymphoid progenitors

10

Myeloid stem cells mature into what types of white blood cells?

monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils

11

Lymphoid stem cells mature into what types of white blood cells?

T lymphocytes
B lymphocytes

12

Cancer of white blood cells are generally termed ______ and are categorized as either _____________ or __________

leukemia

myeloid/myelogenous/myelocytic

lymphoid/lymphocytic/lymphoblastic

13

List major endocrine hormones involved in hematopoiesis and their origins

erythropoietin - derives form KD

thrombopoietin - derives from LV

testosterone - derives from testicles/ovaries/adrenal glands

(Thrombin will activate production of fibrin from fibrinogen molecules, supplied by the liver - blood clotting)

14

Explain the difference in normal Hematocrit levels between males and females

Testosterone is more abundant in males than in females leading to more RBC production

15

Hematocrit is _________ and is measured in ______

the packed volume of formed elements (mainly RBCs) per volume unit of whole blood

percentage

16

The normal value range of Hct in a female is ___ ; in a male it is ___

37-46%
41-53%

17

What is hemoglobin concentration per volume of blood (Hb)?

A measure of the total amount of the oxygen-carrying protein in the blood, which generally reflects the number of red blood cells in the blood

18

What is Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)?

a measurement of the average size of a single red blood cell

Macrocytic
Microcytic

Normocytic

19

What is Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)?

a calculation of the average amount of hemoglobin inside a single red blood cell

Hyperchromic
Hypochromic

Normochromic

20

What is Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)?

a calculation of the average concentration of hemoglobin inside a single red blood cell

21

What is Red cell distribution width (RDW)?

a calculation of the variation in the size of RBCs

Variety in size is ether high or low

22

What is the difference between plasma and serum?

serum is plasma that has clotting factors removed

23

List the immediate precursor for each of the following:
erythrocyte
thrombocyte
neutrophil

reticulocyte

megakaryocyte

band cell

24

Leukocytosis is _________. It usually signifies excess of what type of WBC?

an excess amount of WBCs in the blood

neutrophils

25

List examples of excessive white blood cells types

neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, basophilia, reticolocytosis, bandemia, thrombocytosis

26

Leukopenia is _______

a deficient amount of WBCs

27

An excess of RBCs or all lines of blood cells is called ________

polycythemia

28

Define anemia

a state of a diminished count of erythrocytes and/or content of hemoglobin

29

Anemia can result from one or more of 3 basic mechanisms: _________________

-blood loss

-deficient erythropoiesis (nutrient deficit)

-excessive hemolysis (sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, malaria, auto-immune, etc.)

30

Describe iron deficiency anemia

lack of iron leads to insufficient hemoglobin production
RBCs are smaller than normal and have an increased zone of central pallor
There is also increased anisocytosis (variation in RBC size) and poikilocytosis (variation in shape)