Flashcards in Male Reproductive System Disorders Deck (35)
What parts of the Male Reproductive System constitute primary gonads?
What parts of the Female Reproductive System constitute primary gonads?
What nerve is responsible for the cremasteric reflex? What is the significance of this reflex for reproduction?
Reflex regulates scrotal temperature for optimal spermatogenesis and survival of the resultant spermatozoa
The function of sertoli cells is __________
-form blood-testis barrier
-support developing sperm cells
-produce fluid & control release of sperm into lumen
-secrete inhibin which slows sperm production by inhibiting FSH
-produce androgen-binding protein
Leydig cells are located in between ________ and secrete ______
The tunica vaginalis is ____________. A hydrocele is ________
serous covering of the testis
accumulation of fluids around a body cavity, e.g. testis
Where do spermatogenic cells mature?
List the functions of FSH, LH, inhibin, DHT?
FSH - stimulates spermatogenesis
LH - stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone
inhibin - slows sperm production by inhibiting FSH
DHT - regulate prostate function
What are the structure and the function of the epididymis?
- a tube with a head, body and tail that connects a testicle to a vas deferens
- maturation of spermatozoa and storage of sperm cells in tail of epididymis
What is the difference between ductus deferens and spermatic cord?
The spermatic cord includes the ductus deferens and also testicular artery, vein and nerver
What glands generate seminal fluid?
bulbourethral gland (cowper's)
What are three parts of male urethra?
prostatic, membranous, and spongy urethra
What is the major function of Cowper’s glands?
It is also known as _____?
A pea shaped exocrine gland that secretes pre ejaculatory seminal fluid
AKA bulbourethral gland
List characteristics of semen
Semen is slightly alkaline (pH 7.2-7.8) and contains sperm, proteins, enzymes, fructose, mucus, vitamin C, flavins, phosphorylcholine and prostaglandins
What are the three cylindrical structures, which constitute penile body? What is erectile tissue composed of?
- two corpora cavernosa lie next to each other on the dorsal side and one corpus spongiosum lies between them on the ventral side
- corpora cavernosa are sponge-like tissue containing irregular blood-filled spaces lined by endothelium and separated by connective tissue septa
What is the division of the autonomic nervous system, which controls erection? Ejaculation? What is a neurotransmitter, responsible for an erection?
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia is a result of _______ response. BPH is an increase in ______. It is characterized by obstruction to urination in its _____ stage. Describe development of BPH.
-number of prostate gland cells
- hyperplasia starts in periurethral region and grows outward toward periphery of prostate
Prostate cancer is a malignancy of _______ cells. Growth is initiated within _______ region and grows _______. In prostate cancer, obstruction to urination presents in ______ stage
- inward toward center of prostate/urethral canal
The normal size and mass of prostate gland is ______
Describe treatment methods for BPH
- alpha blockers relax smooth muscle in the prostate and bladder neck
- 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (e.g. finasteride, dutasteride) , inhibits 5-alpha reductase which in turn inhibits DHT
- microwave thermotherapy
- needle ablation
Risk factors for Prostate Cancer are _________
high fat diet, smoking, obesity, genetics, elevated levels of active testosterone and estrogen
Prostate cancer is classified as what type of cancer?
adenocarcinoma / glandular cancer
List red flags for prostate cancer
- fixed lower back pain at night
- urinary voiding difficulty
- nodular prostate
- elevated PSA
Penile cancer is a ______ cell carcinoma that is mostly due to STDs such as _______
Human Papilloma Virus
Under translumination, a hydrocele of the tesis will _______ but a testicular mass will be __________
Testicular torsion occurs when twisting of the spermatic cord cuts off ______, leading to ________
Testicular cancer is most common in the ____ age group
Describe the paraneoplastic syndrome associated with testicular cancer
Feminization syndrome - gynecomastia, galactorrhea, depression, widening hips, HCG secretion
Cryptorchidism is a major predisposition to ________ and __________
Infertility LATER in life
The most common infectious cause of orchitis is _________