Male Reproductive System Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Male Reproductive System Disorders Deck (35)
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1

What parts of the Male Reproductive System constitute primary gonads?

What parts of the Female Reproductive System constitute primary gonads?

testes

ovaries

2

What nerve is responsible for the cremasteric reflex? What is the significance of this reflex for reproduction?

genitofemoral nerve

Reflex regulates scrotal temperature for optimal spermatogenesis and survival of the resultant spermatozoa

3

The function of sertoli cells is __________

-form blood-testis barrier
-support developing sperm cells
-produce fluid & control release of sperm into lumen
-secrete inhibin which slows sperm production by inhibiting FSH
-produce androgen-binding protein

4

Leydig cells are located in between ________ and secrete ______

seminiferous tubules
testosterone

5

The tunica vaginalis is ____________. A hydrocele is ________

serous covering of the testis

accumulation of fluids around a body cavity, e.g. testis

6

Where do spermatogenic cells mature?

epididymis

7

List the functions of FSH, LH, inhibin, DHT?

FSH - stimulates spermatogenesis
LH - stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone
inhibin - slows sperm production by inhibiting FSH
DHT - regulate prostate function

8

What are the structure and the function of the epididymis?

- a tube with a head, body and tail that connects a testicle to a vas deferens

- maturation of spermatozoa and storage of sperm cells in tail of epididymis

9

What is the difference between ductus deferens and spermatic cord?

The spermatic cord includes the ductus deferens and also testicular artery, vein and nerver

10

What glands generate seminal fluid?

seminal vesicles
prostate gland
bulbourethral gland (cowper's)

11

What are three parts of male urethra?

prostatic, membranous, and spongy urethra

12

What is the major function of Cowper’s glands?

It is also known as _____?

A pea shaped exocrine gland that secretes pre ejaculatory seminal fluid

AKA bulbourethral gland

13

List characteristics of semen

Semen is slightly alkaline (pH 7.2-7.8) and contains sperm, proteins, enzymes, fructose, mucus, vitamin C, flavins, phosphorylcholine and prostaglandins

14

What are the three cylindrical structures, which constitute penile body? What is erectile tissue composed of?

- two corpora cavernosa lie next to each other on the dorsal side and one corpus spongiosum lies between them on the ventral side

- corpora cavernosa are sponge-like tissue containing irregular blood-filled spaces lined by endothelium and separated by connective tissue septa

15

What is the division of the autonomic nervous system, which controls erection? Ejaculation? What is a neurotransmitter, responsible for an erection?

- parasympathetic

- sympathetic

- acetylcholine

16

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia is a result of _______ response. BPH is an increase in ______. It is characterized by obstruction to urination in its _____ stage. Describe development of BPH.

-autocrine

-number of prostate gland cells

- early

- hyperplasia starts in periurethral region and grows outward toward periphery of prostate

17

Prostate cancer is a malignancy of _______ cells. Growth is initiated within _______ region and grows _______. In prostate cancer, obstruction to urination presents in ______ stage

-prostatic epithelial

- peripheral

- inward toward center of prostate/urethral canal

- late

18

The normal size and mass of prostate gland is ______

3-4cm

35-40g

19

Describe treatment methods for BPH

- alpha blockers relax smooth muscle in the prostate and bladder neck

- 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (e.g. finasteride, dutasteride) , inhibits 5-alpha reductase which in turn inhibits DHT

- microwave thermotherapy

- needle ablation

20

Risk factors for Prostate Cancer are _________

high fat diet, smoking, obesity, genetics, elevated levels of active testosterone and estrogen

21

Prostate cancer is classified as what type of cancer?

adenocarcinoma / glandular cancer

22

List red flags for prostate cancer

- fixed lower back pain at night
- urinary voiding difficulty
- nodular prostate
- hematuria
- hematospermia
- elevated PSA

23

Penile cancer is a ______ cell carcinoma that is mostly due to STDs such as _______

squamous

Human Papilloma Virus

24

Under translumination, a hydrocele of the tesis will _______ but a testicular mass will be __________

transluminate

opaque

25

Testicular torsion occurs when twisting of the spermatic cord cuts off ______, leading to ________

venous drainage

hemorrhagic infarction

26

Testicular cancer is most common in the ____ age group

15-34

27

Describe the paraneoplastic syndrome associated with testicular cancer

Feminization syndrome - gynecomastia, galactorrhea, depression, widening hips, HCG secretion

28

Cryptorchidism is a major predisposition to ________ and __________

testicular torsion
testicular cancer
Infertility LATER in life

29

The most common infectious cause of orchitis is _________

mumps virus

30

Major etiologies of priapism include _________

ischemia (e.g. diabetes mellitus, IHD, SC anemia), drugs for erectile dysfunction