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Flashcards in Enlightenment Deck (32)
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1

"Earth-centered"

geocentric

2

"Sun-centered"

heliocentric

3

Author of On the Wealth of Nations and the father of modern economics

Adam Smith

4

First ten Amendments to the US Constitution

Bill of Rights

5

18th century religious philosphy based upon reason and natural law

Deism

6

Tsarina of Russia, tried to be and enlightened absolutist, but failed to free the serfs

Catherine the Great

7

Began a religious revival during the Enlightenment; founder of the Methodist Church

John Wesley

8

Holy Roman Emperor and enlightened absolutist; freed the serfs and abolished capital punishment

Joseph II

9

the elegant drawing rooms of great urban houses where people gathered to discuss Enlightenment ideas

salons

10

Judicial philosopher during the Enlightenment; opposed capital punishment

Cesare Beccaria

11

Concept proposed by Rousseau that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will and all individuals should abide by the general will since ti represents what is best for the enitre community

Social Contract

12

Systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence that was crucial to the evolution of science in the modern world

scientific method

13

King of Great Britain during the American Revolution

George III

14

Believed that people entered into a social contract with their government to protect their rights

John Locke

15

Founding document of American; explained our philosophy and our reasons for separating from Great Britain

Declaration of Independence

16

King of Prussia and enlightened absolutist; permitted some freedom of speech and press, but failed to free the serfs

Frederick II the Great

17

Beleived that people's minds begin as a blank slate that is filled by experince and education

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

18

Leader of colonial forces during the American Revolution and First US President

George Washington

19

Absolute monarch of the Austrian Empire; fought two wars against Frederick the Great - the War of Austrian Succession and the 7 Years' War

Maria Theresa

20

Published the first encyclopedia in France where it was also banned

Denis Diderot

21

Early feminist that argued men's domination of women was just as arbitrary and wrong as an absolute monarchs rule over their subjects

Mary Wollstonecraft

22

Author of On the Spirit of the Laws which advocated a separation of powers and checks and balances in government

Baron de Montesquieu

23

This country supported the American colonists after Saratoga to hurt Great Britain

France

24

Satirist and Philosphe; promoted freedom of religion

Voltaire

25

A body of law or a specific principle held to be derived from nature and binding upon human society in the absence of or in addition to positive law

Natural Law

26

Author of The Declaration of Independence and Third US President

Thomas Jefferson

27

Term applied to intellectuals during the Enlightenment

philosophes

28

System of thought expounded by Rene Descartes based on the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge

Rationalism

29

form of government in which power is shared between the central government and several regional governments

federal system

30

The primary cause of the American Revolution was

taxes