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Flashcards in Equine Neonatal Dz Deck (54)
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31

Causes of haematuria?

- trauma
- pyelonephritis
- cystitis/urothithiasis
- urethral rent (male)
- neplasia
- coagulopathy/DIC

32

Causes of chronic regenerative blood loss?

> GI
- parasitism
- neoplasia
- coagulopathy
- ulceration
- granulomatous enteritis
- DIC
> haemolysis
- infectious (EIA, piroplasmosis)
- IMHA
- toxic (redd maple leaf tox USA)
- iatrogenic

33

Causes of NON-regenerative chronic blood loss?

> Fe deficiency
- chronic haemorrhage
- nutritional deficiency (rare)
- chronic dz
> BM failure
- myelopthisis
- myeloproliferative dz
- toxins (phenylbutazone, chloramphenicol)
- idiopathic pancytopaenia
> misc
- rhEPO (less common now)
- chronic hepatic/renal dz

34

Tx anaemia?

> stabilisation (anaemia itself may not need to be treated)
- guided by cliical and lab findings (HR, RR, lactate, PvO2) NOT PCV
- control blood loss if source found
- IVFT if severe blood loss

35

Presenting complaint and clinical signs of haemabdomen?

> colic
- abdo pain
- hypovolaemia (^HR, slwo capillary and jugular refill time, ^ lactate)
- Dx: ultrasonongraphy

36

Px of haemabdomen?

depdns on underlying cause, survival ~ 50%

37

What is periparturient haemorrhage and when is it commonly seen?

- haemorrhge from uterine vessels after more commonly than before parturition
- important cause pp colic and death
- delivery often uneventful!!
> mares may be prone to repeated bleeds in future pregnancy

38

What 2 forms of pp haemorrhage may occour?

- into broad ligament
- into abdomen (can be rapidly fatal)

39

Tx pp haemorrhage?

CV stabilisation

40

2 forms of IMHA?

> 1*
- uncommon: ABs directed against patients RBC ag
> 2*
- Ab formation precipitated by 1* dz, rug administration, neoplasia, immune mediated dz

41

Dx IMHA?

> coombs test can be attempted
- presence of anti-RBC Ab directly (surface of RBC) or indierctly (serum)
- false +/- possible
> flow cytometry to demonstrate Abs on RBC

42

Tx haemolytic anaemia?

- tx 1* dz process
- stop lal meds
- transfusion IF signs of inadequate oxygen delivery
- immunosuppressioin (steroids, azathioprine and cyclophosphamide (latter 2 rarely in horse)

43

What is EIA?

- equine infectious anaemia
- lentivirus
- transmitted via insects, blood contaminated equipment
- not present UK, risk from imports
- persistnet infection - infected horse remains lifelong carrrier

44

3 syndromes of EIA? What is the associated anaemia associated with?

- acute, chronic and inapparent
- anaemia caused by intra and extravascular haemolysis, BM suppression -> thrombocytopenia also common

45

Dx EIA?

Coggins test (AGID) or ELISA

46

Px/management of EIA cases?

- euthanasia/lifelng quarantine if horse + as danger to other horses

47

What is seen with haemolytic anaemia d/t oxidatic injury to RBC? WHen may this also be seen?

> Heinz Body Formation
- oxidative damage to Hbg precipitates on RBC membrane
- RBC less deformable and rapidly cleared from circulation
> D/t
- drugs (phenothiazine, methylene blue)
- plants (onions, Brassica spp. red maple)

48

Pathogenesis of red maple leaf toxicity (not UK)

- wilted leaves
- methaemoglobin results from oxidative change of Hbg Fe to a non usable state for O2 transport

49

Causes of anaemia d/t inadequate erythropoesis?

> most common d/t chronic dz
- chronic inflam or infection/ neoplasia
- sequestration of iron
- shortened RBC lifespan
- defective erythropoeitin response
> Iron deficiency
- can develop with chronic blood loss
- tx Fe supplmentation
> OTher
- neoplastic process
- +- chronic renal failure
- after adminsitration og hrEPO (cross reacts against endogenous EPO)
- idiopathic

50

Type of anaemia caused by chronic dz?

- mild - mod
- normocytic, normochromic
- non-regnerative
- not associated with clinical signs (will not present for this)

51

Tx anaemia d/t chronic dz?

- tx 1* disease not anaemia itself

52

Why is anaemia important?

- 98% O2 transported by hbg
- CaO2 determined by Hbg
> CaO2 = (1.34xHbxSaO2) + (0.003xPaO2)

53

What is CaO2 and what should this be in a normal horse? How does this differ in the anaemic and hypoxaemic horse?

> oxygen content of blood
- CaO2 = 1.34ml/g*15g/dl*0.99+0.003*100mmHg
= ~21ml/dl
> Anaemic PCV 10%
- CaO2 = 1.34*[[3.3g/dl]]*0.99+0.003*100mmHg
= 4.7ml/dl (79% decrease)
> hypoxaemic
- CaO2 = 1.34*15*[[0.8]]+0.003*[[45mmHg]]
= 16.2ml/dl (20% decrease)

54

What is the foals immune system like when born? @ what sage of gestation do T and B lymphocytes develop?

- competent but naive and born agammaglobunlinaemic
( able of mounting an immune response but hasnt been challenged and no trasnfer of Ig d/t epitheliochorial placenta) Ab protective levels reached @ 2 weeks and presenceo f maternal Abs suppresses foals own Ig production (so wait to vax until after maternal Ab waned)
- T lymphocytes funcional @ 100d gestation
- B lymphocytes functional @ 200d gestation
- complement ~10% adult activity
- phagocytosis and killing some organsims low in newborns
-