Eschatology Week 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Eschatology Week 1 Deck (35):

eschatology; from ἐσχατος and λογος
individual eschatology: death
facing death

7 points**

1. near death experiences - his experience in August thought he was having a heart attack - dreadful fear of death… his life is a breath… thought he was dying.. new evaluation of life

2. the inevitability of death
Ecclesiastes 9:2-3 - same for all; for righteous and the wicked -one fate for all men
Ecclesiastes 3:1-2 - appointed time for everything - everyone dies; appointed by the sovereign God -

3. denying the inevitability of death - everyone dies, it is not inevitable - don’t like to talk about it

4. avoiding the inevitability of death (Gen 5:21-24 Enick; 2 Kings 2:7-14 Elijah)

5. an appointment with death (Heb. 9:27)

6. death because of identification with Adam (1 Cor. 15:21-22; Rom. 5:12-19)
because of Adam’s disobedience -in Adam, died

7. contemplating our own death (Eccl. 7:2, 4).. death & taxes.. live more, live for Christ


the nature of (physical) death
the death of the material aspect of human nature (Gen. 2:7; Eccl. 12:7; James 2:26)
all that is alive will die - ecc. return to dust - breath withdrawn and dies; james - death of material
death as the unzipping of the

material and immaterial aspects of human nature: a temporary separation of the two elements - separation of body and death


whole brain death means either

(1) irreversible cessation of circulatory and respiratory functions, or (2) irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain, including the brain stem, is dead (Uniform Determination of Death Act); living person until fully die


higher brain death or neocortical death is the loss of

capacity for consciousness (self-awareness) and social interchange; loss of conversation - not a person if cant do that


the ways we die

the various ways in which people die include the following

(the diseases are generally not isolated causes but are accompanied by pneumonia, infection, kidney and/or liver failure, septicemia, etc.): ischemic heart disease, cancer, stroke, respiratory failure, Alzheimer’s disease, hemorrhage, murder, death by accident (especially a vehicular incident in which alcohol is involved), suicide, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, often in association with Kaposi’s sarcoma), even old age (though not recognized as an official “category” of death by the biomedical institution, the “wearing out” of the body brings about death) (from Sherwin Nuland, How We Die)


the art of dying - nightmares of dying with demons; maintain our hope fixed on Christ
the medieval ars moriendi (dance of death) - death comes to

all people no matter who you are; nothing you can do about it


a biblically theology of dying

7 of them

1. avoiding the extreme of downplaying the tragedy, horror, and evil of death
A. some think that you shouldn't be sad when people die; grief over loved ones is right and necessary because they have contributed to our life and our world
B. death is not the way it’s suppose to be - John 11 - Jesus leaped over Lazarus

2. avoiding the extreme of contemplating death with eagerness and anticipation
A. death is something that Christians should long for

3. death is the gateway between our current existence and an eternal existence of either blessedness in the Lord’s presence or of misery and torment away from that blessed presence

4. this gateway of death is the result of sin and not part and parcel of the created human order
A. punishment for sin

5. Christians view their own death with joy (2 Cor. 5:8; Phil 1:20-23) and not with fear (Heb. 2:15; Rom. 8:38-39)

6. Christians view the death of other Christians with sadness and express sorrow, but such grief is mitigated by the knowledge that they are now with Christ in heaven

7. Christians view the death of non-believers with great sorrow that is not intermingled with joy, yet with hope that impending death prompted serious reflection leading to repentance (avoid giving false assurance of salvation, however)


individual eschatology: the intermediate state

definition: the state or condition of people between

their physical death and the return of Jesus Christ (with the resurrection of the body)


there is need for practical answers to the inevitable questions from loved ones about the person who has died
not a lot of scripture on this - all we know is disembodied (no body), but in the presence of Jesus -not a lot of scripture on this - all we know is

disembodied (no body), but in the presence of Jesus



definition: “a state of temporary

punishment for those who, departing this life in the grace of God, are not entirely free from venial sins or have not yet fully paid the satisfaction due to their transgressions”


Catholic eschatology - explain

those who die in mortal sin (haneous sin) they go to hell - no hope; in a state of grace, there soul goes immediately into heaven; soul must be purged of sin; they make satisfaction of their… cant work to make way - we can pay masses and pray for people to be allowed to come out of purgatory -


support for purgatory..

support: 2 Maccabees 12:38-46
Judas rallied his army and went to the city of Adullam. As the week was ending, they purified themselves according to custom and kept the sabbath there. On the following day, since the task had now become urgent, Judas and his men went to gather up the bodies of the slain (sc. soldiers) and bury them with their kinsmen in their ancestral tombs. But under the tunic of each of the dead they found amulets sacred to the idols of Jamnia, which the law forbids the Jews to wear. So it was clear to all that this was why these men had been slain. They all therefore praised the ways of the Lord, the just judge who brings to light the things that are hidden. Turning to supplication, they prayed that the sinful deed might be fully blotted out. The noble Judas warned the soldiers to keep themselves free from sin, for they had seen with their own eyes what had happened because of the sin of those who had fallen. He then took up a collection among all his soldiers, amounting to two thousand silver drachmas, which he sent to Jerusalem to provide for an expiatory sacrifice. In doing this he acted in a very excellent and noble way, inasmuch as he had the resurrection of the dead in view; for if he were not expecting the fallen to rise again, it would have been useless and foolish to pray for them in death. But if he did this with a view to the splendid reward that awaits those who had gone to rest in godliness, it was a holy and pious thought. Thus he made atonement for the dead that they might be freed from this sin.


what they wrongly use from scripture...

1 Corinthians 3:15 - works tested by fire - they say its about people suffering in purgatory - not correct interoperation

Matthew 12:32 - not forgiven in this life or in the one to come…. to say something will not happen does not mean something else will happen


why purgatory is so messed up...

1. center genic salvation - self focused - work to merit eternal life -
2. NOT in Scripture
3. cannot be assured of salvation
4. nauseated abuses - selling of indulgences - stealing people money


scriptural teaching on the intermediate state

believers (disembodied) go immediately into the presence of the Lord


2 Corinthians 5:8 - to be away from the body is to be at home with the Lord
Philippians 1:23 - departure at death bring su stop be with Christ
Luke 23:43 - today you will be with me in paradise
Hebrews 12:23 - spirits of righteous people made perfect


unbelievers (disembodied) go immediately into misery, torment, and punishment
-Luke 16:23-26 - Lazarus and the rich man

believers await the resurrection of their bodies
there is no .....

“second opportunity” to accept Christ post-mortem, in the intermediate state


cosmic eschatology

the return of Jesus Christ

1. the first and second comings compared (Titus 2:11-14; Heb. 9:28)
A. Jesus brought salvation in his first coming and we look forward to his second coming
B. Jesus first time = acc salvation; Jesus second time = complete victory

2. it will be a definite future event (Matt. 26:54; Acts 3:19-21; 2 Thess. 1:7-10)

3. we do not and cannot know when this event will take place (Mark 13:32-35; Acts 1:7); indeed, it will come unexpectantly (2 Pet. 3:2-4; Matt. 25:8-10)

4. Christ’s return will be personal, visible, and bodily (Acts 1:11)

5. it will be triumphant and glorious (Matt. 24:30)


the return of Jesus Christ in relationship to two other future events: the millennium and the tribulation

Revelation 20:1-6 is a key text; four major views expressed

explain four ways...

1. amillennialism - NO future amillennielaim - we are the future people; we are going through the millennium right now

2. postmillennialism - Jesus will return after the millennium; after this golden age (not literally 1000 years)

3. classic or historical premillennialism - Christ will return before the millennium - in the church age; towards the end of the church age there will be a period of 7 years - evil will be at a high - church will exist through this - following the return of Jesus, Christians will reign with them… 1000 year period happen - satan looses

4. pretribulational or dispensational premillennialism - 19th - 20th century - Christ will return before the millennium - during the 7 years of wrath church will be taken out of this world before the tribulation because tribulation is for unbelievers to bring them to Christ - not for believers - Jesus makes new heaven and new earth


the resurrection and final judgment - redeemed out soul and whole persons - the resurrection of our body as well
our “completed” salvation - bodies raised; if still living, transformed
biblical teaching on the resurrection

John 5:25-29
John 6:39-40
1 Corinthians 15:51-52
Romans 8:11
Philippians 3:21


the nature of our resurrection body (1 Corinthians 15:42-44, 49)

1. imperishable - never where out, healthy
2. glorious - beautiful, handsome
3. powerful - full of strength - as human beings are intended to be
4. spiritual - completely submissive to the spirit of God


the second coming also initiates the final judgment (Acts 17:30-31; Rom. 2:5)
whens judgment occur?

judgement for the righteous = when Christ returned
judgement for the unrighteous = when the millenian is over


who will be the judge?

Christ will be the judge (2 Thess. 4:1; Acts 10:42; 17:30-31; John 5:22, 26-27)


somehow, Christ followers will

participate in the work of judgment (1 Cor. 6:2-3)


we Christ followers

will be judged (Rom. 14:10, 12; 2 Cor. 5:10)


degrees of

rewards will be given to us (1 Cor. 3:12-15; Luke 19:17-19)


unbelievers will be

judged (Rev. 20:11ff)


degrees of punishment will be

meted out to them (Luke 12:47-48; 20:47; Matt. 11:22)


angels will be

judged (2 Pet. 2:4; Jude 6; 1 Cor. 6:3)


God is

holy and just in his judgment (1 Pet. 1:17; Rom. 2:11; Rev. 19:1-2)


the judgment is

final and eternal (Matt. 25:46)


three challenges that oppose this teaching of eternal, conscious punishment of the wicked:

conditional immortality


(Rom. 5:18; 1 Cor. 15:22; the wideness of God’s mercy)
all sinful beings have been chosen for salvation
wicked - hell, torment for a time and then have opportunity to believe - salvation so great it will eventually save all



(2 Thess. 1:9; “eternal” punishment)
immortality belongs properly to God
immortality is a gift that God gives to those who trust Jesus Christ
suffer for a time if unbeliever and then just don't exist
wicked punished for a time, but cease to exist after punishment

conditional immortality


God annihilates people. ultimate punishment is annihilation - causes them to not exist
fire consume - john scott



the eternal state: the new heaven and new earth

a total renewal of

this may involve the destruction of the

the entire creation will take place (Rom. 8:21-23)

current cosmos, followed by its renewal (2 Pet. 3:7-10; Rev. 21)