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Flashcards in The Church Week 3 Deck (100):

the ordinances of the church

sacraments and ordinances: general discussion
mustereon = sacrament = mystery =

associated with a mystery; mystery religions at the time - > these celebrations, these grace filled moments at the time


a brief history of the development of baptismal theology and practice
7 sacraments in the Catholic Church 1000-800AD

1. baptism - cleaned an adult/infant form original sin - cleaned from sin - baptismal regeneration - grace communicated through the waters of baptism
2. confirmation - grace filled moment endowing the person who is confirmed with the power of the Holy Spirit
3. uceris - body and blood - presence of Jesus
3. penance and reconciliation - sacrifice for one’s sin - remorse for sin
4. prayers and alms -engaging in good deeds -
5. anointing of the sick - grace for the journey into the after life
6. holy orders - ordained for priests of the church
5. matrimony - man and woman getting married


**Reformers say only 2 sacraments:

1. baptism (Matthew 28)
2. Lord’s supper (Matthew 26-29);
*sacraments take plan in accordance with the Word of God and on the basis of faith -> these sacraments are grounded on the Word of God and founded by the Lord
… they said call them ordinances because Jesus ordained them


Augustine defined a sacrament as a

tangible concrete visible sign of invisible yet real grace


the current theological divide between paedobaptism and believer’s baptism

1. immersion - common practice of the early followers of Jesus - after belief
2. Tutulian - why would we baptized children who are innocent? - insisting on the validity
3. Recipian - baptizing children on the 8th day - circumscion 250 -need to be baptized before then… infants baptized.. then they are released from the sin of adam - if they died they would go to heaven
4. infant baptism


the practice of believer’s baptism = hear the good news and embrace it

the mode of baptism: immersion and its evidence

1. *the connotation to plunge into water (of the New Testament Greek word βαπτιζω (baptizō))

2. *Jesus was baptized by immersion (Matt. 3:16; Mark 1:10)

3. *both John the Baptist and Jesus baptized people by immersion (Mark 1:5; John 3:22-23) - plenty of water

4. *the baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch was by immersion (Acts 8:38-39)
-concerning the practice of sprinkling people as the proper mode of baptism, the New Testament writers had a word they could have used to signify this practice as the correct manner of administering this rite had they wanted to communicate that idea (rhantizo; Heb 9:13, 19, 21; 10:22); in no account of baptism, however, is this word employed
would of been available to use if true - rhantizo

5. *the meaning of baptism as set forth in the New Testament also supports immersion as the proper manner of administering this rite


the meaning of baptism: several New Testament meanings

1. as baptism is in “the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit” (Matt. 28:19), this act associates the new Christian with the triune God

2. baptism by immersion vividly portrays identification with the major events—the death, burial, and resurrection—of Jesus Christ (Rom. 6:3-5; cf. Gal. 3:26-28)

3. another meaning of baptism is cleansing from sin (Acts 22:16; 2:38)

4. escape from divine judgment is another meaning of baptism (1 Pet. 3:20-21)

5. a final meaning of baptism follows not from any specific passage of the New Testament but from a theological consideration: as one of the two signs of the new covenant (the other being the Lord’s Supper), baptism symbolized incorporation into the new covenant community, the church - new covenant relationship with God
1. iniatory right - entering into covenant with God = baptism - immersion proper mode


the necessity of baptism = baptism is not

its non-necessity does not however render it

does not add anything to the accomplishment of our salvation
not to be ignored

necessary for salvation;



biblically, this view makes the best sense of several passages of Scripture (1 Cor. 1:13-17) : if Christ did not send Paul to baptize but to preach the gospel, this affirmation would seem

unconscionable if baptism were necessary for salvation


this position of the non-necessity of baptism also makes sense of the discussion of salvation and its means of appropriation

at the council in Jerusalem (Acts 15) - this would of been talked of here if it was nec.


baptism is not necessary for salvation; still, its non-necessity does not render it unimportant; indeed, Martin Luther is a reliable guide on striking the

balance between avoiding the two extremes of insisting on baptism because it is necessary for salvation and minimizing the importance of the rite because it is not necessary


following Luther’s lead, the church, while avoiding the error of insisting that baptism is necessary for salvation, must obey

the Great Commission (Matt. 28:19) by teaching and urging new converts to be baptized (e.g., Acts 2:38) - beautiful baptism

-not a part of salvation - not necc. for it
-for appropriating salvation - repentance, faith in Jesus Christ, and baptize people


all Christians are to be baptized because

it is a common part of salvation process


miscellaneous matters for believer’s baptism

age of baptism

if a prerequisite for baptism is a credible profession of faith that flows from hearing and understanding the gospel, then the question of the proper age of baptism is

secondary to the question of what constitutes a credible profession of faith


-children respond but don't know what they are responding to sometimes
-wired to say yes
-it’s a gospel issue - are we sharing the gospel properly
-once saved always saved..

first issue?
second issue?

gospel issue first… baptism issue secondly


a period of catechism before baptism

in the case of people (other than children) who hear the gospel, repent of their sins, and believe in Jesus Christ for salvation, should a period of time elapse—for catechism, for observing the genuineness of their conversion—before they are baptized?

I advocate for baptism

very soon after a person has embraced the gospel; this position assumes that the new convert has given a credible profession of faith and thus has demonstrated a sufficient genuineness of having grasped onto Christ so as to be saved; it further assumes that biblical teaching on baptism—its importance, meaning, and practice—has been communicated to the new Christian and understood, but this instructional process is not a lengthy one


baptism soon after convserion why?

because the church will never achieve a complete guarantee that a person’s conversion is absolutely genuine, to aim at such assurance—and, correlatively, postpone baptism until such a point is reached—is unrealistic; that level of confidence has not been granted to the church in its earthly pilgrimage

you will baptize unbelievers - because only God knows their heart - we will make mistakes, doesn’t mean we keep putting it off - absolute certainty will never happen


the issue of rebaptism

because this rite is administered by the church—intended here as the universal body of Christ expressed as a local assembly of Christians—I disagree with rebaptism: if a person has heard the gospel, repented of sin, believed in Christ and, upon his credible profession of faith been baptized, that person’s baptism

avails for all time; it may not and cannot be repeated (by way of application, when Christians who have been baptized after a credible profession of faith in another church of the same denomination or in another church of a denomination other than that of the church to which they are making application for membership, they are not rebaptized)

this explanation requires some clarification: believer’s baptism does not consider the baptism of an infant in any church—e.g., the Catholic Church, a Protestant paedobaptist church—to be a baptism; consequently, when Christians who have been baptized as infants express the desire to become members of a church that practices believer’s baptism, they are first to be baptized (this is not a rebaptism, but a baptism)

should only be baptized once


historical views of the Lord’s Supper

the early and medieval periods

1. baptism 2. Lord’s supper -always this order; Lord’s supper was celebrated weekly (deacons took the elements and celebrated with shut ins)


Malachi 1:11 - rising of the sun to the setting of the sea -> gentiles now become people of God -> pure sacrifice = Lord’s supper - connection to the blood and body of Christ - associated with the elements of the Lord’s supper

1. ideas develop in the early church

2. other beliefs..

1. remembrance - done in remembrance of him
present= Jesus is present when celebrate it
symbolism = symbols so can’t be reality because symbols - various ideas circulating in the early church

2. 9th and 10th century: the actual body and actual body of Jesus Christ are present
1215 - fourth latern council of the church proclaimed the Catholic church of transubstantiation - transformed into the blood of christ
Thomas Aquinas - dogma of this


bread and cup of wine are changed (transubstantiation) - it becomes the blood of Christ and the body of Christ - no longer wine or bread but the blood and body of Christ - nature/substance changes - absolutely necceary to believe in transubstantiation

Catholic transubstantiation


denounces transubstantiation; because this is not biblical but only philosophical
in the incarnation, the second person of the Trinity - communication of properties - omnipresent with human Jesus Christ - Jesus is there - Con (in,with,under) substantiation (the elements)… sponge dipped in water; spongy material dipped in water -
Lord’s Supper is a promise - forgiveness of sins - received in faith

Luther consubstantiation (or sacramental union) -


emphasis on remembering Jesus Christ - the elements help stimulate what Christ did for us; against transubstantiation strongly; Jesus can’t be present because he is in the heaven - not and cannot be in his humanity bc he is in heaven
against transubstantiation
against consubstantiation

Zwingli’s memorial view =


= against transubstantiation & consubstantiation; apprecitaed Zwingli’s memorial view;
yes they are signs - The Lord is spiritually present but not physically present; elements sign but not empty sign, spiritual presence of Christ because he is there with us - feeding upon him and celebrating his spiritual presence

Calvin’s spiritual presence view


similar to Zwingli’s memorial view ;
only served to genuine believers - followers and baptized

(Ana)baptist views -


explain the institution by Jesus Christ (Matt. 26:26-29; par. Mark 14:22-25; Luke 22:14-23)

loaf of bread - broke it - take eat this is my body; took a cup - this is my blood - blessed it and gave thanks - this is my blood of the new covenant - celebrating a passover feast - last supper - gave thanks for the wine and bread - eucro - giving of thanks - adding to the passover - remembrance of Jesus’ sacrificial death - sign of the end of the old covenant and the beginning of the new covenant that Jesus made - Jesus wil not eat w us until he comes back


explain the Pauline tradition
1 Corinthians 10:14-22

1 Corinthians 10:14-22 - dont skip over 1 cor 10… flee from idolatry
-one bread, one body
-do not be participate of demons
-many corinthians were going to pagan temples - celebrating the Lord’s supper and celebrating pagans things not okay
-akoinania- fellowship in the body of Jesus Christ
-do not particaipte with demons - do not have fellowship with demons - participating when were at the pagan temples


explain the Pauline tradition
1 Corinthians 11:17-34

1 Corinthians 11:17-34 - divisions among you; pot luck… getting drunk and Paul calls them out for eating all of the food and leaving none for the poor; selfish attitude of the rich - in the Corinth church - participating in the Lord’s supper wrongly


my perspective and matters of application

the nature of the Lord’s Supper and its observation

the Lord’s Supper is an ongoing rite, one of two ordinances instituted by Jesus Christ, which the church is to observe between his

first and second comings and in anticipation of his return


this celebration involves symbolic elements—bread that is broken, a cup of wine (or grape juice), and the distribution of both elements to the church: these actions vividly portray the

the broken body of Christ and the poured out blood of Christ—his vicarious sacrifice on behalf of sinners through which they experience the forgiveness of sins—and the church’s appropriation of Christ’s salvific work


the church observes the Lord’s Supper in remembrance of

Jesus’ sacrificial death on the cross of Calvary, and of Jesus’ blood that ratified the church’s new covenant relationship with God


more than mere remembrance, however, this ordinance is a participation in the body and blood of Jesus Christ; that is, as the church celebrates the Lord’s Supper, Christ and all of the salvific benefits associated with his sacrificial death are present

included in this understanding is an ontological claim about

Christ’s presence in observances of the Lord’s Supper, a presence that is neither mysterious nor magical but is grounded on the divine attribute of omnipresence


theologically, divine omnipresence as ontological presence means that

“God is present in the totality of his being at each point of space”


additionally, divine omnipresence as spiritual or moral presence means that

God is present in different ways at different times and places to bless his obedient people and judge those who are against him


applying this discussion, my claim embraces both the ontological presence of Christ in observances of the Lord’s Supper, as well as the particular manifestation of his spiritual or moral presence (1) to bless proper celebrations of the Lord’s Supper and (2) to judge improper celebrations of the ordinance (as exemplified in the Lord’s retribution against the divided Corinthians; 1 Cor 11:29-31)

as Christ promised his spiritual or moral presence to accompany his church as it carries out the

the Great Commission (Matt 28:20) and as it engages in church discipline (Matt 18:20), so too he and all of the salvific benefits associated with his sacrificial death are present in celebrations of the Lord’s Supper


as great blessing for his people who observe the ordinance in a worthy manner, the benefits of Christ’s presence include the following

the reenactment of gospel rescue—his broken body, his shed blood—confronts the still-sinful members of the church who eat the bread and drink the cup; thus, an awareness or conviction of sin is relieved through the saving grace of Christ

a uniting with Christ and bonding with fellow Christians takes place through joint participation in the celebration

this nurturing of the gospel and community in turn promotes and furthers sanctification, or maturing in faith and obedience


the church is further benefited as the ordinance both portrays and nurtures the unity of the body of Christ

consequently, the observance of the Lord’s Supper is to be preceded by s

elf-examination to ensure that those who intend to participate do so in a worthy manner (not as worthy people)


regular observation with biblically prescribed elements

in one sense, Paul’s point about “as often” as the church administers the ordinance (1 Cor. 11:36) leaves the matter of frequency to the church’s decision: at one extreme, the church does not have the option of deciding it will never observe this ordinance, because Jesus commanded that the church celebrate the Lord’s Supper in remembrance of him; at the other extreme, the church must repudiate the idea that its members may administer the ordinance privately to themselves everyday

because of what it does—proclaims the gospel message of Christ’s death, fosters

remembrance of Christ’s vicarious sacrifice for the forgiveness of sins, signals the new covenant relationship with God, benefits Christians as they participate in the body and blood of Christ through the presence of Christ and his salvific work, and portrays and stimulates unity in the church—the Lord’s Supper warrants very frequent observation


certainly, the early church’s weekly observance, continued on in many churches today, provides us with a fine historical precedent; according to Witherington, the expectation is “that whenever the whole body comes together, there should be

a Lord’s Supper as part of the act of worship”
= weekly basis


with the expansion of the church into lands outside of the Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, and European areas in which Christianity has traditionally flourished, an impetus to adopt elements other than bread and wine (or grape juice) has called into question the proper means with which to celebrate the Lord’s Supper

however, bread and wine are

the dominically- and biblically-prescribed elements and must therefore be retained in the church’s observation of this ordinance


given the spatio-temporal attribute of the church, I also favor retention of bread and wine: the contemporary church shares the

rich legacy handed down to it from the church of the past and stands in strong continuity with it by using traditional elements


whats the deal?

regular observation


views of communion?



participants in the Lord’s Supper

I am an advocate of a position that is often referred to as ______ _____; that is, participation in the Lord’s Supper should be reserved for baptized members in good standing in their respective churches

this view contrasts with both closed communion and open communion

close communion


the Lord’s Supper should be restricted (closed) to baptized members in good standing of a particular church: because it is a local church ordinance—thus each local church is responsible for administering the Lord’s Supper properly and only to those who can and should rightly participate—its celebration should be reserved for the baptized members in good standing of the local church that administers it

the application of this view means that ?

closed communion:

non-Christians, unbaptized Christians, and baptized members in good standing of any and all churches other than the particular local church, are excluded from participation in the Lord’s Supper


the Lord’s Supper should be served (open) to all genuine Christians; “all pious persons, baptized or unbaptized, have a right to the Lord’s supper”

the application of this view means that a church about

open communion:

to administer the ordinance invites all Christians present in the assembly to participate, whether or not they have been baptized, whether or not they are members of the church serving the Lord’s Supper, and (possibly) whether or not they are members in good standing in their respective churches


1. participation in the Lord’s Supper should be reserved for baptized members in good standing in their respective churches

2. in contrast to closed communion, close communion does not

3. in contrast to open communion, close communion insists that those who participate be

the application of this view means that a church about to administer the ordinance invites its?????

instructions should be given before the Lord’s Supper is administered

1 .close communion:

2. insist that all participants must be members of the local church observing the ordinance

3. baptized Christians

own members as well as all Christians present in the assembly who have been baptized following a credible profession of faith in Jesus Christ (conversion) and are members in good standing of their respective churches to participate


participation in “a worthy manner”

it is very important to note what 1 Corinthians 11:27-32 does not exclude: it does not prohibit unworthy participants from observing the Lord’s Supper: who could ever be sufficiently worthy to share in the body and blood of Jesus Christ?

rather, the passage bars

unworthy participation: the problem in the church of Corinth was one of divisiveness: rather than “discerning the body” (v. 29)—that is, “the unity and interdependence of people in the church, which is the body of Christ”—the wealthier Corinthians were disrespectful of their poorer brothers and sisters during the celebration, thus making a mockery of the Lord’s Supper


accordingly, the self-assessment prior to participating in the Lord’s Supper is not for

searching out remaining sins; these should be confessed and repented of promptly, not accumulated and dismissed quickly and inconsiderately before sharing in the Lord’s Supper


rather, the self-examination is for the purpose of

detecting broken relationships, division-causing behavior, disrespect, and mistreatment of brothers and sisters in Christ: if self-assessment reveals these problems, the Christian should refrain from participating in the Lord’s Supper and act decisively and promptly to rectify the mistreatment of others and reconcile broken relationships


churches that encourage their members to prepare for the ordinance ahead of time by

acting swiftly to mend divisions do them a great service, for such members may look ahead joyfully and with great anticipation to their worthy participation in the upcoming celebration


a symbol of church unity

in the context of an agape feast; using

one loaf of bread
-one loaf; one cup


a proleptic celebration

the eschatological character of the church finds tangible expression in the

celebration of the Lord’s Supper: both Jesus (Matt. 26:29) and Paul expressed this anticipatory nature of the ordinance (1 Cor. 11:26)

looking forward to something greater


this eschatological depth of the Lord’s Supper needs to find expression in the church’s observation; this can be accomplished with particular regard to the atmosphere in which the ordinance is administered: it should be a ... not a ....


it is not a funeral, a time to feel sorry for Jesus who died; neither is it a time for morbid introspection; neither is it a celebration of its own good fellowship


rather, the Lord’s Supper is a ........................ because Jesus, through his sacrificial death that has defeated sin and death, will return to establish the kingdom of God in its fullness; while the atmosphere in which the church administers the Lord’s Supper must be decorous and respectful, it should also express a vibrant celebration of both past and future realities wrought by Jesus Christ

proleptic celebration of victory


the ministries of the church

divine enablement for ministry:

spiritual gifts


he purpose and nature of spiritual gifts

the primary purpose for spiritual gifts is to

foster the growth of the church (Eph. 4:11-12)


to each church member is given a

gift or gifts of the Spirit “for the common good” (1 Cor. 12:4-7)


the exercise of spiritual gifts is

the “now…then” framework in which Paul discusses the exercise of the gifts is standard eschatological language
the hope is that this imperfection will yield to

time-sensitive (1 Cor. 13:8-12)

“the perfect” that will come “then,” when Christ returns, and this return has an important implication for the church’s exercise of spiritual gifts

use/enjoy your gifts NOW


the types of spiritual gifts

word of wisdom and word of knowledge
acts of mercy
gifts of healing
workings of miracles
distinguishing of spirits
kinds of tongues
interpretation of tongues
other “gifts”


explain these two perspectives: continuationism and cessationism

for at least the last century, evangelical churches have been embroiled in an important debate over whether

all of these gifts continue to be distributed by the Holy Spirit and thus operative in the church today (the position of continuationism), or if some have ceased their functioning according to the divine design for them (the position of cessationism)


*cessationism arguements

1. primary purpose for spiritual gifts = to testify to the message of the good news and the messengers
2. largely signs just for the apostles 1 cor 12
3. sign needed to lay the foundation of the church eph 2:20


*continuationism arguments

1. edification of the church (immaturity to maturity) needs all the gifts 1 Cor 1:7
2. not restricted to just the apostles and apologetic band (common plan in the Corinthians and Galatians church)


the exercise of spiritual gifts

regardless of one’s cessationist or continuationist perspective, all Christians agree that (at least some) spiritual gifts are critical for the growth of the church; thus, it must understand how the operative gifts are to function

“dual dimensionality” means that

spiritual gifts possess both a divine aspect and a human aspect


as for the divine dimension, the distribution of spiritual gifts and their empowerment for effective service is grounded in

the Triune God (1 Cor. 12:4-6); specifically, the Holy Spirit sovereignly distributes spiritual gifts and empowers their functioning (1 Cor. 12:11)


the human dimension is clearly seen in that spiritual gifts are endowments for the members of the body of Christ: as the gospel is announced, it is the evangelist who proclaims it; as a meeting is directed, it is by one who has the gift of leadership; as comfort is extended, one with the gift of mercy is ministering; as a revelation is communicated, it is communicated by a prophet: the exercise of the gifts is a fully (though not merely) human activity “for the common good”

humans exercise them


by implication??? , members need to

recognize what spiritual gift (or gifts) they have received from the Holy Spirit, learn principles for the proper exercise of their gift (e.g., 1 Cor. 14:26-35), become skilled at and exercise faith (Rom. 12:6) when using their gift, and concretely implement their gift in the service of the church


Ephesians 4:15-16 underscores this dual dimensionality: a two-fold reality is at the heart of church growth

first and foremost?
second and derivatively?

first and foremost, and as a foundation for the second dimension, a divine dimension is at work

second and derivatively, from this divine foundation, a human dimension is at work


this dual dimensional synergy produces

the importance of spiritual gifts for church growth dispels all notions of

the growth of the church

inferiority and superiority


he function of spiritual gifts for the common good of the church means that “any exercise of a gift of the Spirit that does not result in edification of the body is

inappropriate and out of order” (Williams), a point that is illustrated by Paul’s contrast between prophecy and (uninterpreted) speaking in tongues (1 Cor. 14:2-5)


at the same time, building up the church and personal edification, as long as this latter result is not the only or even primary benefit of the exercise of a spiritual gift, are not mutually exclusive

when it comes to the distribution of spiritual gifts, it is a matter for both divine sovereignty and human pursuit (1 Cor. 12:11; and 14:1)


at the same time, the church should “earnestly desire the higher gifts” (1 Cor.12: 31) —“first apostles, second prophets, third teachers, then…” the rest (1 Cor. 12:28)—an ordering for of gifts for the church in general that is tied to their “potential for edifying the church:” “All are

equally gifts of the Holy Spirit and thus have intrinsically the same value. But since the gifts are community oriented and ‘for the common good,’ whatever gifts most build up the community are most greatly to be desired.”


is the atmosphere or context in which the exercise of the gifts must be undertaken (1 Cor. 12:31; 13); thus, as the church exercises its many and varied gifts manifesting and empowered by the Spirit, it does well not to measure its level of spirituality or assess its progress in maturity by the mere presence of teaching, mercy, giving, service, prophecy, tongues, and the like taking place in its assemblies; rather, it insists that its spiritually gifted members—all of the church—evangelize with concern for the lost, heal not for show or fame but out of compassion for those who suffer, give not to get back in return but to care for others, lead not with complaining but out of devotion for the church, and the like



the church worships the triune God

in one sense, worship is the

all-encompassing passion and purpose of the church


some definition: worship God - all things

in another sense, worship is a specific activity of the church, as defined by Allen Ross

true worship is

the celebration of being in covenant fellowship with the sovereign and holy triune God, (of the Triune God)


true worship is

the celebration of being in covenant fellowship with the sovereign and holy triune God, (of the Triune God)

by means of......

the reverent adoration and spontaneous praise of God’s nature and works

the expressed commitment of trust and obedience to the covenant responsibilities, and

the memorial reenactment of entering into covenant through ritual acts, and continuing in (Lor

all with the confident anticipation of the fulfillment of the covenant promises in glory


regulative principle vs. normative principle

Scripture insists that the church must worship God according to the way

he finds acceptable


historically, churches have promoted two divergent positions on the issue of acceptable worship:

regulative principle vs. normative principle


- whatever is commanded in scripture is required; whatever is not commanded is forbidden 1 Tim 4:15 - read the Scripture; no painting - explicit or implicit Biblical warrant

regulative principle


- church is free to incorporate any elements into its worship unless Scripture explicitly or implicitly prohibit them

normative principle


regulative principle

NT & OT or just NT


normative principle

traditionally under certain context luther catholic maybe?


*applying the principles

the church proclaims the Word of God

the “preaching church” is

portrayed and commanded, envisioned and instructed, in Scripture: “To generate faith God has instituted the preaching office” (Barth)


historically, the preaching ministry has been considered

the first mark of the church


how do u know true church?



-2 Corinthians 5:18-20 - Ministry of reconciliation
-expository preaching; serial exposition of entire

biblical books


the church engages non-Christians

the pattern in the New Testament

Jesus’ ministry to

his own people, the Jews (e.g., Luke 19:1-10), and a few Gentiles (e.g., John 4:1-42; Mark 5:1-20; Matt. 8:5-12; Matt. 15:21-28; Luke 17:11-19)


Jesus’ restriction of his disciples’ ministries to

the early church followed the pattern of its Lord in evangelizing

the Jews (Matt. 10:5-6)
main focus

the Jews (Acts 1-11)


following Jesus’ own commission (Matt. 28:18-20), this pattern did not

last long, as the church moved into evangelization of the Samaritans and Gentiles


Christopher Wright: “Jesus’ earthly ministry was launched by a movement that aimed at the

But he himself launched a movement that aimed at the ingathering of the nations to the new messianic people of God. The initial impetus for his ministry was to call Israel back to their God. The subsequent impact of his ministry was a new community that called the nations to faith in the God of Israel.”

restoration of Israel.

Romans 1:16


as evangelism takes place and the gospel is announced, a sobering responsibility accrues to the herald of the good news (John 20:23); yet, this is only the beginning of the mission (Matt. 28:18-20): the aim of the church’s mission is to produce

fully devoted followers of Jesus Christ among all the peoples of the world


the Lausanne Covenant:

We affirm that Christ sends his redeemed people into the world as the Father sent him, and that this calls for a similar deep and costly penetration of the world. We need to break out of our

ecclesiastical ghettos and permeate non-Christian society. In the Church’s mission of sacrificial service evangelism is primary. World evangelization requires the whole Church to take the whole gospel to the whole world. The Church is at the very centre of God’s cosmic purpose and is his appointed means of spreading the gospel.


the church disciples its members: discipleship is a

the church can never be done discipling its members, and it must adapt many resources and avenues in seeking to perform this task

lifelong and multi-pronged intentional process:

Christian education
community life


the church cares for people

Galatians 6:9-10: the church cares for people, both outside and inside of it; do good to all

-prayers for government leaders (1 Tim. 2:1-2)
-prayers for spiritual growth and maturity in Jesus Christ (Eph. 1:17-19; 3:14-19; Phil. 1:9-11; Col. 1:9-14)
-prayers of thanksgiving to God for its members’ good works (1 Thess. 1:2-3; Eph. 1:15; 2 Thess. 1:3-4; Phm 4-5)


how else?


the early church was an outstanding example of a generous caring ministry through giving (Acts 2:44-45; 4:32-35; example of Barnabas, 4:36-37; counterexample of Ananias and Sapphira, 5:1-11)

the church of Jerusalem, though initially able to provide for the poor in its midst, was later in dire need of outside help; various Gentile churches dedicated themselves to collecting money for its relief

example: the church of Corinth (2 Cor. 8-9): some important aspects of giving:


how do we give?

first four

1. giving is a ministry of the church associated with doxa, or the glory of God (8:19; 9:11-13)

2. giving is an act of submission that results from the confession of the gospel (8:9)

3. God is a generous, giving God (9:9), and the church is likewise

4. God is a gracious God, and so the church engages in giving as an “act of grace” (8:6, 7, 19), with a dual focus

first, God provides grace that leads to generous giving (8:1, 2, 14; 9:8-14)

secondly, the church engages in this “act of grace” through human obedience and faithfulness (8:7)

such pursuit of excellence is fostered by regular teaching on giving; orienting new Christians to the concept and principles of stewardship; challenging maturing members to give (and live) sacrificially; budgeting and spending wisely, etc.


how else do we give?

5. church care through giving is appropriately referred to as “a ministry for the saints” (9:1) in that it affords “relief” (8:4) by “supplying the needs of the saints” (9:12; cf. Rom. 12:13)

6. giving offers “proof before the churches” that the caring church’s “love is also genuine” (8:24, 8; cf. 1 John 3:17)

7. giving achieves a certain degree of fairness (8:13-15)


concrete instructions as to how the church should engage in this ministry

1. giving is not a ministry in which the church engages “reluctantly or under compulsion” in times of prosperity only; rather, its giving should be “cheerful,” voluntary, and sacrificial (9:7; e.g., 8:2-5)

2. individual church members should be purposeful and give in accordance with the church’s intention (1 Cor. 16:1-2): missional church giving

3. the collection (and distribution) of money must be carefully and responsibly administered by multiple bona fide officers (or their representatives) of the church (8:16-24); squandering the church’s giving through mismanagement or embezzlement, misdirecting money by not honoring the intentions for which it was given, and failing to report accurately both incoming and outgoing funds will dishonor Jesus Christ and bring reproach upon the church


support of its pastors

1. the church is to provide generous support for its pastors (1 Tim. 5:17-18; cf. Gal. 6:6; 1 Cor. 9:6-18)

2. practically speaking, this instruction and its proper application has been severely overlooked by the church

3. this instruction must be contextualized and thus its application will vary from church to church


care for church members

-in addition to supporting its pastors, the church must care for its members
-from the biblical discussion about long-term assistance for widows (1 Tim. 5:3-16), several principles may be derived for the acute financial needs that result in requests by needy members (or by others who are apprised of the needs of those members) for the church’s assistance
-first principle: the church should only help members who are truly in need

second principle: the church should primarily give assistance to those members who are most devoted to the Lord and have an outstanding reputation for good work