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union with Christ- not only has God elected us, called us with an effective cll, regenreated, brought conversion, justified us.. but also he unites us with His Son
what is the definition of this?

definition: “union with Christ is a general term which summarizes a variety of relationships which exist between us and Christ and through which we receive every benefit of salvation”

-mighty act of God talked about often in Scripture
-wide ranging in its application
-every aspect of God’s work in our life - connect to our relationship with Jesus Christ - far ranging aspects of it


expressions used to portray our union with Christ
1. believers are in Christ -


A. being in Christ relates to God’s eternal plan

*Ephesians 1:4 - chosen in Christ; elected us to be his sons and daughters, that election was don in Christ
*2 Timothy 1:9 - we are participants in God’s purpose and grace in Christ (from all eternity)


expressions used to portray our union with Christ
1. believers are in Christ -


B. being in Christ involves us in the life of Christ and identifies us with him in the crucial aspects of his existence; therefore, whatever Christ did, God counts as something that we did also
what Christ did, God counts as though we did it

1. we died with Christ - he died to pay the penalty for our sin - because we are in Christ, God sees us having died with Christ
beautifully portrayed in baptism
Romans 6:1-11
Galatians 2:20
2 Corinthians 5:14

2. we rose with Christ - he rose, we rose because we are united with Him
vividly displayed in baptism -resurrected to new life, satan has no diminion over her
Romans 6:1-11
Colossians 2:12-13
1 Corinthians 15:22

3. we ascended with Christ - citizen in this world.. yes, but even more so citizens of heaven
Ephesians 2:6
Colossians 3:1-4
Ephesians 1:3


expressions used to portray our union with Christ
1. believers are in Christ


C. being in Christ brings the entirety of the application of salvation

regeneration (2 Cor. 5:17) - new creation in Jesus Christ
grace (Eph. 1:6; 1 Cor. 1:4-5) in Christ
redemption, the forgiveness of sins (Eph. 1:7) in Christ
eternal life (1 John 5:11) in Christ
salvation (2 Tim. 2:10) in Christ
justification (Rom. 8:1) in Christ
sanctification (1 Cor. 1:30) in Christ
summary: Ephesians 1:3 - God has blessed us with every spiritual blessing IN CHIRST


expressions used to portray our union with Christ
2. Christ is in believers -

3. all believers are ___ __ _______
Ephesians 5:23 - Christ is the head of the body
Romans 12:5 - one body, members of one another
1 Corinthians 12:12-27
Galatians 3:28
John 17:21-23

2. Holy Spirit is truly in us, we depend on His power
Colossians 1:27
Galatians 2:20
John 14:23
John 15:4-5

3. one in Christ


implications of our union with Christ... 1

Christ is our example: we are to imitate him (his mimetic function (the patten of our life); WWJD? presupposes we know WDJD)
1 Corinthians 11:1
1 John 2:6 -our lives should reflect in every way what Christ is like; he is our model


Christ is our example verses:

examples of following Christ’s life

Romans 15:7 - as Christ has welcomed and accepted us, we are to welcome and accept others
Ephesians 5:25 - Christ’s love for the church, model for how a husband should love his wife
Colossians 3:13 - as Christ has forgiven us we are to forgive others; think about th forgiveness that Christ has extended to you
1 John 3:16 - as Christ has sacrificed for us we are to sacrifice for others
1 Peter 2:18-23 - as Christ suffered righteously - he never took things into his own hands - trusted God, don't take righteousness in our own hand


implications of our union with Christ... 2

we enjoy fellowship with Christ as he manifests his presence in different ways at different times


we enjoy fellowship with Christ as he manifests his presence in different ways at different times scripture

1 Corinthians 1:9; 1 John 1:3; Philippians 3:8 -

Matthew 18:20 - Christ promises His special presence during church discipline - welcome the presence of Christ because its messy

Matthew 28:18-20 - missional endeavors, his special presence to the church

1 Corinthians 10:16 - when we celebrate the Lord’s supper - to bless us when we rightly participate in the Lord’s supper


implications of our union with Christ... 3

we live out our whole life in his presence (coram Deo) - we live life in the presence of God


we live out our whole life in his presence (coram Deo) - we live life in the presence of God


2 Corinthians 2:10 - forgive the sins of others for their sake in the presence of Christ

1 Timothy 5:21, 6:13-14 - disciple of fallen elders is a serious matter, charges follow through in the presence of God and Christ Jesus

2 Timothy 4:1 fight the good fight of faith - live for an audience of one, am i pleasing him? goal = to please him


what is adoption?

“an act of God in which he makes us members of his family”


adoption scripture

John 1:12 - we become children of God; because God causes us to be born again into his family

Romans 8:14-17 -lead by the Holy Spirit - only if son an daughter of God

Galatians 4:4-7 - redemption leads us to be received as adopted sons and daughters


the nature of adoption

different from the other divine acts in salvation
has to do with our relationship of God as our Father
judicial act (moment of time God adopts us)
endooring relationship


the privileges of adoption

we now relate to God as our good and loving Father


Matthew 6:9 address God as Father in prayer

Galatians 4:7 no longer slaves, we are sons and daughters - children relating to our Father

Romans 8:15-16 - Spirit’s internal witness, we have a relationship with God forever
primary way of relating to God - still true that he is our Creator, Judge, Lord, Provider, Sustainer.. but the most intimate role that he plays… is that of Father


the privileges of adoption

God the Father


Psalm 103:13-14 our Father loves us and has compassion on us - knows our sinful state and loves us anyways

Matthew 6:32 takes care of all of our needs

Matthew 7:11 gives us good gifts as our Father

Luke 11:13 the gift of the Holy Spirit - best gift

Hebrew 12:5-6 he disciples us for our good


the privileges of adoption

we are led by the Holy Spirit

Romans 8:13-14 - know one another, love one another

as adopted children, we are brothers and sisters, members of the same family


the privileges of adoption

we are led by the Holy Spirit

we are to imitate our Father

Ephesians 5:1 -
1 Peter 1:14-16 - to our holiness


the privileges of adoption

all 4

1. we now relate to God as our good and loving Father
2. we are led by the Holy Spirit
3. as adopted children, we are brothers and sisters, members of the same family

4. we are to imitate our Father


monergistic work
synergistic work

sanctification - progress work throughout our lives - involves God and us
monergistic work - others are this; only God at work
only one person justifies us.. God
synergistic work - working with, collaborating together
God and believers at work


Sanctification defintion ?

“sanctification is a progressive work of God and believers that makes us more and more free from sin and like Christ in our actual lives” (adapted from Grudem, Systematic Theology, 746)

alternatively: the process by which our moral character is brought more and more into conformity with our legal status before God


Sanctification vs. Justification

-internal, moral condition/character
-continuous throughout our life
-cooperation of God and believers
-not completed/perfect in this life
-greater in some than in others

-legal standing
-once for all time
-entirely God's work
-the same in all believers


scriptural teaching on sanctification

Old Testament

Hebrews words for sanctification mean.. something that is set apart or consecrated for the Lord’s work
places, objects
Levis were sanctified - separated for God’s purpose


scriptural teaching on sanctification

New Testament

sanctified people live lives that are holy


three aspects of sanctification

positional sanctification
progressive sanctification
completed (perfected) sanctification


sanctification, in this sense, takes place immediately at regeneration

definition believers are set apart from sin and the world for God’s purposes
scriptural teaching on positional sanctification

1 Corinthians 1:2 - called saints

1 Corinthians 6:11 - having been sanctified

Acts 20:32

positional sanctification
progressive sanctification


the nature of positional sanctification -

initial phase of sanctification - set apart from sin and the world
definitive break from slavery to sin


the primary sense in which “sanctification” is used in Scripture and theology

definition (see earlier discussion)

scriptural teaching on progressive sanctification

John 17:17 - Jesus prays for our sanctification in the truth -

Philippians 1:6 he will continue his work in us

2 Corinthians 3:18 ongoing work with the HS

1 Thessalonians 4:3 God’s will for us

Romans 6:12-13

Colossians 3:10

the nature of progressive sanctification (later discussion)

progressive sanctification


definition the totally deliverance of the influence of sin and perfection of our nature
scriptural teaching on completed sanctification

Hebrews 12:23 spirit of righteous made perfect

c. the nature of completed sanctification (more in personal eschatology)

at death - go to be with the Lord - set free from sin - receive our glorified bodies

at Christ’s return - then we will receive our santified bodies.. we will be in heaven without our bodies until Jesus comes back - we will long for the beautifulcation of our bodies - then and only then will we in body perfected

completed (perfected) sanctification


sanctification is

never completed in this life

some theologies and denominations hold to a view of “entire sanctification” or “sinless perfection,” an experience in the life of completed sanctification (this may be instantaneous or the result of a process)
john wesly - pure love

as one person describes it, this is a definitive work of God’s sanctifying grace in which a person is fully released from rebellion and disobedience into wholehearted love for God and others (Dieter, p. 17); it is “salvation from all willful sin,” (Dieter, p. 15); therefore “sin” refers to a deliberate violation of the known will of God


sanctification is never completed in this life

support for this view

Scripture commands perfection and therefore implies it is attainable
Matthew 5:48
2 Corinthians 7:1
1 Peter 1:16
1 Thessalonians 5:23

some believers are called “perfect”
1 Corinthians 2:6
Colossians 2:10 some r perfect
Ephesians 4:13

Scripture provides examples of “perfect saints”
Genesis 6:9
Job 1:1
1 Kings 15:14

1 John 3:6, 9 and 5:18- believers do not sin


***but Scripture itself is overwhelmingly against this view

no one is without sin
1 Kings 8:46
Proverbs 20:9
Ecclesiastes 7:20
Romans 3:10, 23

confession of sin is constantly required
1 John 1:8-10
Matthew 6:11-12

approaching God reveals one’s sins
Isaiah 6:1 ff.


the support for this position is unfounded

scriptural commands do not imply ...

the appellation “perfect” is better rendered “mature”

-they refer the ....?

the scriptural examples of “perfect saints” are contradicted

Genesis 6:9
Job 1:1
1 Kings 15:14

“righteous” and “blameless”

1 John 3:6, 9 and 5:18 - sin no more ir abide in Christ.. impossible for a true believer to live in habitual sin; out of char. - also a command

circumscribing the nature of sin - limits how bad sin is

sanctification is never complete in this life - not an excuse to sin

warning! use caution and wisdom in sharing this truth

set forth the goal/ what we strive for

general char. of ones life - overall


sanctification involves

both God and believers


What is God’s role in sanctification?

in ways that are appropriate to his divine agency

1 Thessalonians 5:23 - God who sanctifies - he is the one who will change our char.
Philippians 2:13 - God causes us to want his will and grants us power to do it
Hebrews 13:20-21 - God works in us whatever is pleasing in his sight

it is especially the Holy Spirit who is responsible for our sanctification

1 Peter 1:2
2 Thessalonians 2:13
Galatians 5:22-23


What is our role in sanctification?

our role - in ways that are appropriate to our human agency, we don't try to do God’s work, not equal, but cooperative

*passive role - to yield/depend on God’s work

Romans 6:13 - yield yourself to God; posture of submission
Romans 12:1 - offer yourself to God
Romans 8:13 - Spirit guides, be responsive to the work of the HS
Ephesians 5:18
Philippians 2:13 - trust God to will and work in us

*active role - strive to obey God and increase in sanctification

Philippians 2:12-13 work out our salvation, work hard in string for sanctification - good fruit will result because God’s work is in us;
-God’s work is primary to and foundational for our work
Hebrews 12:14 - strive for holiness
1 Thessalonians 4:3 abstain from immorality
1 John 3:3 purify yourself
2 Peter 1:5-11 make every effort to grow in godly character


ways in which we exercise our active role

both of our roles are important!

don’t forget the community dimension of our sanctification
Hebrews 10:24-25

spiritual disciples - reading scripture, praying, memorizing, meditating, obeying, repentance, fast, corporate worship with fellow believers

trust and obey because there is no other way to be sanctified in Jesus
strive actively


anctification affects the whole person
explain this... 4 aspects

1. our intellect - our mind, our reasoning - be about the renewing of our mind, take every thought captive to Christ

Colossians 3:10
Philippians 1:9
Romans 12:2
2 Corinthians 10:5

2. our emotions - not as anxious as we use to be, peace instead

Matthew 6:30-31
Philippians 4:6-8
Ephesians 4:31

3. our will - our decision making capacity, God’s will will become more an more reflected in our will; we desire the will of God and the will of God only

Philippians 2:13

4. our body - use our hands for praise of God

1 Thessalonians 5:23
2 Corinthians 7:1
1 Corinthians 6:19-20


perseverance thesis: If we are going to gain the assurance of being and remaining a christian we must

rest our faith on the firm foundation of the work of triune God and His word.


to the question, “Will the operation of divine grace begun in a true believer’s life certainly continue and be brought to completion such that a genuine Christian can never completely fall away from Christ and fail to obtain eternal salvation?”, two different answers—one positive, one negative—have historically been offered

Calvinists - yes it will certainly continue, certainly be brought about +

Arminians - no certainty of that -


1. definition (from a Calvinist perspective: “They, whom God has accepted in his Beloved, effectually called, and sanctified by his Spirit, can neither totally nor finally fall away from the state of grace, but

2. this does not apply to

3. these true believers, though they may fall into sin temporarily, will certainly

-backsliding of worldliness.. but eventually they will return
-testimony of person who had committed bad sin
-no sin is too big for God
-once saved always saved - but once genuinely saved, always following

4. what does this refute?

-1. shall certainly persevere therein to the end, and be eternally saved”

2. everyone who professes faith - only to those whom God has elected and saved - genuine Christians

3. persist in exercising faith and engaging in good works in the midst of temptations and attacks

4. this refutes “a common caricature of this doctrine which describes it as teaching that believers are certain to be saved no matter how they live” (Hoekema, “The Perseverance of True Believers,” in Saved By Grace)


perseverance is a continuing work of God and hence the security of these true believers does not ultimately rest on

Carson quote....

their ability to withstand assaults and maintain themselves in Christ

“genuine faith, by definition, perseveres; where there is no perseverance, by definition the faith cannot be genuine (D. A. Carson


this saving faith includes perseverance as a ......
1 John 2:9 - element of perseverance
if they would of had saving faith they would of continued with us
motus potus argument - nature of saving faith… it continues, it always perseveres

eternal security (or assurance of salvation) is not the same as

constitutive element



scriptural teaching on perseverance (a Calvinist perspective)

passages emphasizing the character of God and perseverance

1 Peter 1:3-9 - on God’s powerful work to keep us in the faith; an inheritance reserved for us in heaven, we are guarded/protected rom anything that could try to get our inheritance (demonic and ourselves)

Philippians 1:6 Paul’s confidence - God completes what he begins - God’s work of salvation in our life will continue until Christ returns

Romans 8:31-39 - God is for us. He is on our side. Resurrection. Election. Nothing can separate you from the love of Christ.

1 Corinthians 1:8-9 Paul emphasizes the faithfulness of God.

1 Thessalonians 5:23-24 Faithful God will bring our completed salvation to past at Christ’s return


passages presenting God’s purposes for believers as being all of a piece

Romans 8:28-30 God is good to us now and working all things for our good.
1. foreknowledge
2. predestined
3. called
4. justified
5. glorified
must have all of them - past, present, and future work in our lives


passages setting forth Christ’s pledge to believers

John 6:37-40 eternal life will be given to all who believe in Jesus Christ - he will raise up believers on the last day - eternal life; Jesus will not lose any of those who are given to him

John 10:27-30 all those who are Jesus’ sheep will follow him and none of them will ever perish; not possible for any sheep of Jesus Christ to be lost


passages affirming Christ’s intercessory work on behalf of believers

Hebrews 7:25 Jesus is the high priest and is interceding for us; eternally prays for us so we will certainly be saved

John 17:24


passages affirming the work of the Holy Spirit

Romans 8:14-16 Spirit bares witness with our spirit;
Ephesians 1:13; 4:30

Romans 8:23; 2 Corinthians 1:22, 5:5; Ephesians 1:14 - the sealing of the Holy Spirit - guarantees that we will receive the inheritance that in promised to us

2 Corinthians 3:18 = on going continuous transformation into the image of Jesus Christ; we belong to him, he transforms us; if you have the Son you have eternal life


passages providing assurances of eternal life

John 3:36
John 5:24
1 John 5:13

have jesus have eternal life


other aspects of the divine work and perseverance

election - always to ultimate salvation; not part of the way… those who are elect will certainly be saved

union with Christ - in Christ, Christ is in them. partakers of the Holy Spirit

regeneration by the Holy Spirit - life of light now

the sealing of the Holy Spirit - mark that guarantees our salvation; pledged to make the final payment

the reality of being part of the new covenant


perseverance from an Arminian perspective

while emphasizing that provision of persevering grace has been made for the Church, this view does not consider this grace to be

indefectible, but conditional with respect to each individual Christian

protected by God’s power… but this grace can be resisted
ultimate salvation is contingent on the believer persevering


can u stop the process of salvation? what is her salvation ultimately laid upon?

thus, “there is no way of telling whether a given person in the Church will persevere to the end; the fact of his perseverance at any given moment is shown in the fact that he is persevering” (I. H. Marshall, Kept By the Power of God).

themselves; this is works; this is merit


can falling away from the faith occur?

arm say yes.. genuine believers can


scriptural support for this Arminian perspective
apostasy -

can abandon the faith, genuine believers can fall away from the faith


passages warning against apostasy

Hebrews 2:1-3 - warning against falling away from the faith.. if you cant fall away from the faith then that do this passages mean
Hebrews 3:12
Hebrews 10:26-31
2 Peter 3:17


passages exhorting believers to remain in the faith

Colossians 1:21-23 you who once were alienated
Hebrews 3:14-15
John 15:1-7
Matthew 10:22


passages presenting cases of actual apostasy

Hebrews 6:4-6 - genuine believers who fall away from the faith
1 John 2:18-19 - these are genuine believers who are in our church but do not remain in the faith of Jesus Christ
2 Peter 2:1-2
Acts 5:1-11
1 Timothy 1:19-20; 2 Timothy 2:16-18; 2 Timothy 4:10


in contrast to the Calvinist perspective, the Arminian view finds perseverance to be

inconsistent with human free will and claims that it may lead to complacency and moral laxity


a compatibilist approach to this doctrine encourages

responsible integration of the passages stressing God’s continuing work of preservation with those emphasizing the believers’ responsibility to persevere in the faith


acknowledging the difficulty of knowing if some people are genuine believers, it admits that some non-believers give


startling evidence of conversion

Matthew 7:21-23 - not everyone who says to me Lord Lord will come into heaven
Hebrews 6:4-6 once enlightened, shared in gifts, sounds like true believers, understood the gospel..
1 John 2:18-19

Joellie…. from Rome…wife took child out of wedlock… Argentia.. was always about what you have to do, not what Christ did - though he seemed like a genuine believer he was not


these non-believers do turn away, not from saving faith, but from the

if the Scriptural authors have categories for __________________ (faith which seems like saving faith but isn’t) then passages which speak of people falling away do not compel us to conclude that their defection is from saving faith
-move away from religious orientation.. not true christians
2 Tim 3:2-5

true believers, however, always continue in grace until ultimate salvation, and the ground of this perseverance is God’s sustaining power which works through the persistent faith of believers

religious position they once held

“transitory” faith or “spurious” faith


what is the nature of perseverance?

perseverance is the continuing powerful work of God to keep Christians through their faith so that they will be eternally saved
-perseverance is ultimately a divine work

all who are genuine believers will persevere to the end, and only those who persevere to the end are genuine believers


all who are genuine believers will persevere to the end, and only those who persevere to the end are genuine believers

*many passages of Scripture emphasize the necessity of continuing in faith throughout life

Colossians 1:22-23
Hebrews 3:14; 4:14

*continuous faith is the means by which God’s persevering work is active in Christians

1 Peter 1:5
Philippians 2:12-13


*the passages that underscore the necessity of continuing in faith in Christ to the end of our lives never have the intention of making those who are presently trusting in Christ

worry or doubt that at some future point they might fall away


what can give a genuine believer genuine assurance of salvation?

1. the gracious mighty acts of God the Father

2. the pledges and prayers of God the Son

3. the testimony of God the Holy Spirit

4. the promises of the Word of God

5. present faith and obedience


don’t ground your salvation on an experience, but on the

triune God and His Word


ultimately, assurance of salvation is grounded on

God’s salvific activity and not some subjective sense (faith, evaluation of good works, personal profession)


yet, a subjective sense is not to be minimized but rather directed toward thanksgiving to God: as a believer contemplates the phenomenal transformation which she has undergone (she now knows God, trusts Christ, follows the Spirit, repudiates sin, desires the Word, loves others), she should be drawn to the source of this change (God’s marvelous work) and conclude rightly,

“I must be elect and saved, for God’s loving and gracious work alone can explain this wonder!”


objections to the compatibilist perspective

1. it is inconsistent with human freedom (a guarantee of such a continuous work of God does not allow for human freedom, which includes the possibility [and in some cases, the actuality] of falling away)

2. it leads to laxness and immorality

3. it contradicts Scripture, which records several cases of apostasy

4. it contradicts Scripture, which issues warnings against apostasy (this would seem uncalled for, if the believer could not fall away)

5. it contradicts Scripture, which urges believers by means of exhortation to continue in the way of sanctification (this would appear unnecessary if there were no doubt that they will continue to the end)