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Flashcards in Salvation Week 1 Deck (101):

soteriology; from σωτηρια (sōteria) = salvation
what is this that we study in ST3?

-the application of salvation..
-what Christ did on the cross now becomes activated in our life.. it is a subjective work…


Systematic Theology II covers the

accomplishment of salvation; under the doctrine of Christology, we treat the work of Christ in providing atonement for our sins (what Christ did on the cross to accomplish our salvation, this being his objective work)


Systematic Theology III covers the

application of salvation; under the doctrine of salvation, we treat the appropriation of the work of Christ on our behalf (what Christ did on the cross to accomplish our salvation now becomes activated in our life in a subjective work)


God has grace to both unbelievers and believers - grace he bestows on all people;
-not mundane, but not saving grace

Common Grace


What is the definition of common grace?

the grace of God by which he gives people in-numerous blessings that are not part of the application of salvation


comparison of common grace and saving grace

CG - not for salvation; doesn't result in saving race
SG - for salvation; does result in salvation


comparison of common grace and saving grace

CG - for believers and unbelievers
SG - for believers only


where else do we see common grace ?

1. creation in the image of God
2.physical realm
3. intellectual realm
4. moral realm
5. creative realm
6. societal realm
7. spiritual realm


areas of CG
1. creation in the image of God (Gen. 1:26-31; mandate fulfillment in Gen. 4)

*the fact that all people are created in the image of God
let “us” make man in “our” own image
1. procreation: v 28 - multiply the earth (procreation - majority of human beings will be married and have children)
it’s who we are
2. vocation: working - to build the society/civilization genesis 4.. being a part of society, getting married.. all apart of God’s plan and building civilizations.. according to the design of God


areas of CG
2. physical realm

-Matthew 5:44-45; Acts 14:16-17 (cf. Psalm 145:9, 15-16)
-God is the providential provider - blessing to believers and unbelievers
-Sun rises and falls on all people
-Sometimes unbelievers are blessed physically because of believers.. Pottier (the Egyptian officer) was blessed on account of Joseph - the goodness and count in the created order.. fruit of common grace


areas of CG
3. intellectual realm

despite depravity, people can still use their minds to construct things… science and technology.. given incredible intellectual realm


areas of CG
4. moral realm

-restrains people from being as evil as they could possibly be
-gives people a moral consensus - basic moral principles written on all people’s hearts.. this is wrong don't do it, this is right do do it…
-this sense of uncleanliness
-the more we sin, the more we become callous of the sin
-the conscious applauds when we do right - true for believers and unbelievers


areas of CG
5. Creative realm

artistic areas - sculpting, painting, music, athletes
God’s common grace on creative genius and beauty - fruit of CG


areas of CG
6. Societal realm
7. Spiritual realm

6. Societal realm
-structures/organizations that flow from God’s plan
-government - all been est. by God


reciprocal relationship of common grace and saving grace

***Common grace influences and enriches the church - which is the recipient of saving grace***

-materials for your church building, musical equipment, medical technology.. fruit of God’s common grace
-saving grace brings blessing to unbelievers who live near the church
-Billy Graham - church use to be known by integ


4 reasons for common grace

1. part of the process leading up to salvation
Ephesians 2:4 - Paul describes God’s goodness to unbelievers - it may overwhelm them, designed to prompt you to obedience; they become so overwhelmed by God’s goodness leads them to say i must know this Lord
Roman 2:4

2. displays God’s goodness and kindness
Luke 6:35

3. demonstrates God’s justice - just in condemning people because they have experienced God’s common grace
Romans 2:5

4. God is glorified - image bearers give gory to God when they exercise dominion of creation, build civilization, use their intellectual abilities, use their artistic abilities.. they do not know they are doing this, but they are… he is glorified when image bearers who are created in His image when they do what God created them to do


What should our response to common grace be?

1. do not reject, but appreciate the good things that unbelievers do
-Billy - gay guy he talks to in the pool

2. be thankful for common grace in unbelievers lives…
appreciate it
-be thankful for your iphone.. build probably by an unbeliever
-be thankful for your government
-be thankful for buildings and bridges built by unbelievers


What is the definition of election?

“an act of God before creation in which he chooses some people to be saved, not on account of any foreseen merit in them, but only because of his Sovereign good pleasure”


definition of election encompasses..

-from eternity past
-in his grace, not because of any merit - it is unconditional
-not even bases on God’s foreknowledge
-because of GOd’s sovereign good pleasrue


What is foreordination?

*all of God’s will, what he decrees, what he plans/purposes*
-creation of the universe, salvation of people, irruption of mount st. helena, and hurricane kartina


What is predestination?

* some people fore eternal life and some people for eternal death - specifically related to salvation - election & reprobation*


What is election?

God’s choice of some people for eternal life - specifically related to salvation, but only one aspect


Scriptural teaching on election

Ephesians 1:3-14

list of the mighty acts of God he has done in our lives

1. election - he chose us
2. predestines us for adoption - predestined for adoption and sons and daughters
3. redemption - forgiveness of sins; purchasing us out of slavery through the blood of Christ
4. makes known to us the mystery of His will - experience the blessing of God - we know that God wins
5. inheritance - we are sons and daughters - heirs as family members
6. sealed us with the Holy Spirit


Scriptural teaching on election

Ephesians 1:3-14

Who is the mediator?

IN CHRIST - all of these blessings come to us through Christ


Scriptural teaching on election

Ephesians 1:3-14

How should we live because of these verse?

1. people of praise
2. people of holy, loving, blameless lives


Scriptural teaching on election

Ephesians 1:3-14

*On what basis does God act to us in these ways?

*What is the proper human response to these blessings of God?

1. he is a gracious God
2. this is God’s purpose - he wants to

v 13 - TRUST - believe the gospel


Salvation: Election

scripture 1-5

*1 Thessalonians 1:4-5 - Paul says that he knows that God chose the people of Thessaclanicha because of their positive result to the good news/ because they believed; you know that you are elected by God/ chosen by God because of our belief in the gospel - in would not occur if we were not

*1 Peter 1:1-2 - Paul affirms that believers are chosen by God; God’s election and foreknowledge/will go hand and hand

*Romans 11:5-7 - Paul says that there was only a remnant formerly.. in our days there is still a remnant of Israel - chosen by grace, not according to works

*Romans 8:28-33 - Paul rehearses God’s goodness in our life. Those whom God foreknew he chose. He was good to us in the past and in the present. Present time he is good to us in calling us. Future time he is good to us in he will bless us, come confirmed to the image of Jesus christ.

*Acts 13:48 - Paul turns to the gentiles.. they began rejoicing in the gospel.. those who had been chosen


Salvation: Election

scripture 6-10

*2 Thessalonians 2:13 - Paul rejoices that they were chosen by God. in eternity past (through the Holy Spirit’s work - becomes actualized when the HS works in our lives)

*Revelation 13:7-8, 17:8 - John talks about earth dwellers.. their names are not written in the lambs book of life - if in the lambs book of life - names will no be blotted out

*John 17:2 -God the Father grants people to Jesus Christ
Father gives people to His Son. The Son achieves salvation for them.
*Acts 18:9-10 - God has elected/chosen his people in Corinth.. Paul stays there because God will protect him.

*Romans 9:23 - Vessels of mercy prepared beforehand, before creation for glory


“when” election took place?

1. before the foundation of the world - eh 1:4
2. from all eternity 2 tim 1:9 - God saved us and called us to a holy calling


Arminian perspective

=conditional election - God’s election is based on something


major tenets of this position - Arminian perspective

1. 2 Peter 3:9;1 Timothy 2:3-4 - God desires all people to be saved

2. all people must be able to meet the conditions of salvation - conditions of being able to repent of their sins and trust Christ

3. Prevenient Grace - given to all people - restores to ALL people to meet the conditions of salvation - all people have the opportunity to respond to the gospel

4. Divine Foreknowledge of faith in Christ - election is based on God’s foreknowledge of those people who hear the good news will have faith in the gospel and will continue in it their entire life.. on that basis God chooses them

5. Conditional Election - it is conditioned on God’s foreknowledge of what they will do when they hear the gospel and continue to do in their life


Reformed/Calvinist perspective

= Unconditional Election


Reformed/Calvinist perspective

major tenets of this position

1. Divine Counsel - (Ephesians 1: 11) the purpose or plan of God for everything to work together - God has purposed eternally, including the election of some people for eternal life

2. Election in Christ is according to the good pleasure and sovereign will of God
God was please to love you and give you His grace

3. Election is purposeful
live holy and blameless and live for the praise of His glorious grace

4. Special saving grace is given to the elect.
2 Tim 1:9
Saved because of God’s calling

5. So prevenient grace - given to all people the ability to meet the condition of salvation - not in scripture.

6. Election as a divine decree from all eternity is actualized in space and time.


contrast the Arminian and Calvinist positions
what both believe?

1. God creates all human beings equally in the image of God.
2. God permits all people have fell in Adam.
Guilt before God - all equally sinfulness before God
3. God elects all whom he chooses to elect in Christ.
all IN CHRIST - no distinction between the mediator
only one Mediator
4. God elects all fallen image bearers whom he choses to elect in Christ.


explain conditional grace.. what is the distinguishing factor?

CONDITIONAL GRACE = God gives prevenient grace to all human beings created as image bearers and fallen into sin..
Ephesians 1:5, 11; 2 Timothy 1:9; Romans 11:5-6
No distinction in who gets prevenient grace - all get equal amount
**What is the distinguishing factor between the believer and unbeliever?**
-individual choice: it all rests on the choice of the human; ones choice is what their salvation depends on… one cooperates, one does not
-God knows who will and who will not


explain unconditional grace.. what is the distinguishing factor?

UNCONDITIONAL ELECTION = God out of his good will he chose who will save
**What is the distinguishing factor between the believer and unbeliever?**
God’s choice


arguments for unconditional election

1. Election is based on God’s sovereign will and good pleasure - eph 1:5,11 - according to the purpose of God’s will - according to the riches of His grace, His purpose

2. The depravity of human beings and inability of human beings that there is nothing good in them that good merit God’s favor.
every element of us in corrupted by sin

3. Prevenient grace is not taught in Scripture.
Psalm 59:10 - why do they teach this then? on latin translation is where this came from -latin vulgate & other scripture
God’s desire is for all to be saved verses - he doesn't want anyone to not believe
God does all his good and holy will. No external conditions what God does.

4. Scripture does not demonstrates, nor election is based on anything human beings do/
not based on our will. jn 1:11-13, rom 9:15-16,
not based on peoples works eph 2:8-9 - grace, not works
not based on peoples choice jn 15:16 - we did not choose Christ, he chose us; jh 6:44 - only those who are drawn by god can come to Christ - not depend on our choice


election is

it seems that the idea of divine sovereignty demands unconditional election


Scripture demonstrates that neither

salvation in general, nor election in particular, is based on any condition in humanity; therefore, election must be unconditional


objections to the doctrine of election.....

1. the doctrine denies that human beings have significant freedom, can make choice, can act in some way other than as robots, etc.; thus, the issue becomes that of divine sovereignty vs. human responsibility

2 deals here

1. compatibilism
2. soft determinism


**compatibilism** - view that holds the two affirmations - what are they?

(1) God is absolutely sovereign, but his sovereignty never functions in such a way that human responsibility is curtailed, minimized, etc.

(2) human beings are morally responsible creatures—they significantly choose, rebel, obey, believe, defy, etc., and they are rightly held accountable for such actions; but this characteristic never functions so as to make God contingent


what is soft determinism?

the decisions and actions of human beings are truly free, though causally determined by divine sovereignty, because these causal conditions are non-constraining


soft determinism - human beings are not _________ ___—they don’t possess contra-causal freedom, the power to decide and act contrary to God’s sovereign will; but human beings still possess significant, valid, genuine freedom because they decide and act in accordance with their own will and nature and not under constraint

Example: Glenn- conviction, people praying and loving Him, Holy Spirits calls - without these conditions—> human response, prompted by these things

absolutely free


objections to the doctrine of election.....

election contradicts God’s stated desire that he is not willing that any should perish but that everyone should come to repentance and faith in Jesus Christ (2 Pet. 3:9; 1 Tim. 2:4)
his wish is not his will


objections to the doctrine of election.....

the doctrine of election is a deterrent to evangelism: if God has elected some to salvation and this will surely come to pass, then the question is raised of, “Why witness?”
2 Thes 2:14 - Paul rejoices in God’s election - 1. work of the HS; 2. belief in the truth
it should spur you onto evangelize because God can change their heart


objections to the doctrine of election.....

election is unfair: if God chooses some and passes over others, he is unfair
he didn't save any of the fallen angels
if he saves any one it is a remarkable out pouring of his grace that goes far beyond what we deserve
if God was fair, we would all go to hell
why is God merciful to some an not to others - you cannot ask the question why did God not save anyone - you have no standing to ask this question


definition of reprobation: reprobation is

an act of God before creation in which he decides “to pass over some persons in sorrow deciding not to save them, and to punish them for their sins, and thereby to manifest his justice”


scriptural teaching on reprobation

1. Romans 9:17-23 (esp. vv. 18 & 22)
God has mercy on whomever he wills and hardens whomever he chooses/wills
in order to show his mercy some have to not believe
vessels of wrath prepared for destruction
2 objections:
1. God prepares vessels of mercy for glory.. v23 does not mention that God prepared vessels for wrath.. maybe they prepare themselves for wrath. …. context emphasizes that God is in control of all.. the positive and negative aspects.. he has mercy on whoever he wills and hardens who he wills - differences, but it is still god who prepares and elect.. ultimately God

2. 1 Peter 2:4-8 - stumble because they disobey as they were destined; hardships are all under God’s plan; no only predicted, but planned by God.. v 8 these unbelievers fall over the rock that is Christ, they take offense at God’s way, live lives of disobedience, they do not submit to God’s way - reject Christ due to their disobedience to his word.. as they were destined to.. they stumble.. because they were appointed to this end… v6 Christ cornerstone..

3. Ephesians 1:11 - working ALL things according to the counsel of His will; reprobation would be in this will


issues that the doctrine of reprobation raises

-God receives all the praise. Reprobation breaks God’s heart. It does not please him the death of the wicked. ez. 33:11
-Blame for the condemnation of sinners is always placed on the people, not God.
-Difference in God’s relationship to reprobation and election.
**Plans election and non election
**Causes - God causes the elect to be saved. God does not cause the evil. They do this in their evil state.


Trust what you know of God - he is good. Do not rebuke God for being unjust, but let’s thank God. Matthew 11:25-36 - for hiding from some and revealing to others.. needs to be a

motive of thanksgiving


effective calling is

“an act of God the Father, speaking through the human proclamation of the Gospel, in which he summons people to himself in such a way that they respond in saving faith”


Scriptural teaching on effective calling

Romans 8:29-30
1 Corinthians 1:9, 23-24
1 Thessalonians 2:12
2 Thessalonians 2:14


the nature of effective calling
4 things

1. it is limited to the elect only - draws the elect only into faith in Christ

2. it is effective, resulting in salvation (a positive response of the recipient)
some examples include:
Acts 13:48
1 Corinthians 1:23-24

3. it demands a free response of faith and repentance to the gospel
therefore, God’s effective calling comes through the gospel message (2 Thess. 2:14)

4. the agent who effects this calling is the Holy Spirit


effective calling is distinct from the

“general” call or “external” call that is offered to all people who hear the message of the gospel, even to those who reject it
specific summoning


scriptural teaching on the “general” call

Matthew 11:28

Matthew 22:14


the nature of the “general” call

the significance of the “general” call

-it is universal
-it can be rejected (and it is rejected by the non-elect)
-the rejection of the general call (the gospel) results in eternal punishment (2 Thess. 1:7-9)


what is regeneration?

“regeneration is a secret act of God in which he imparts new spiritual life to us”

being born again
human nature is in desperate need of transformation


what is our the presupposition ?(Eph. 2:1; 4:18; 1 Cor. 2:14; John 3:3)

-the need of regeneration


scriptural teaching on regeneration

Titus 3:5 - the washing of regeneration by the HS

“born again” - old life being gone; born of God, brought forth by god
John 3:3-8
1 Peter 1:23

“born of” or “brought forth by” God
John 1:13
James 1:18

“made alive”
Ephesians 2:5
Colossians 2:13


-we contribute _________ to our regeneration - this is a secret act of God
-Act 16:14 with .....?
-Billy Graham - how to be born again..bad name how to convert… how to become a christian what should of been called….we play no work
-who is the agent of regeneration?????


Lydia - God opened Lydia’s heart to pay attention to the gospel and grasp the good news

Spirit & Father


what is the nature of regeneration?

it is wholly a work of God in which we play no role
the agent of regeneration is the Holy Spirit

the Holy Spirit is the one who imparts new spiritual life; but God the Father is also mentioned in this act (Eph. 2:4-5; Col. 2:13; James 1:12-18; 1 Pet. 1:3)

the instrument of regeneration is the Word of God, the gospel
distinguishing two mighty acts of God

effective calling - speaks the gospel to summon people to himself
regeneration - God gives us new life to change our heart - his work in us to change our very nature


distinguishing two mighty acts of God

effective calling -
regeneration -

effective calling - speaks the gospel to summon people to himself
regeneration - God gives us new life to change our heart - his work in us to change our very nature


regeneration is an

it involves both a negative and a positive aspect (though regeneration is hard to detail)

instantaneous event; only once; may be easily known and may not

- bad is gone, old past away…
new creation the old things have passed away.. + john 3:8 largely myserteous
we cant see the wind, but we see the effects of the wind
we cant see the event of regeneration, but we see the effects


the results of regeneration

1. a life free of continual (habitual) sin (1 John 3:9; 1 John 2:29)
-gives way to a new pattern
2. genuine love (1 John 4:7)
-love directed towards God and others; not directed at yourself
3. overcoming the world (1 John 5:3-4)
-we now power and victory over the pressures and temptations of this world; that would otherwise keep us from 4. obeying God
-protection from Satan (1 John 5:18)
-keeps us safe from ultimate spiritual disaster/harm


definition of conversion?

“conversion is our willing response to the gospel call, in which we sincerely repent of sins and place our trust in Christ for salvation”

(faith and repentance)


an important point to bear in mind in ministry

-you don't have to have a radical conversion experience
-don’t have unrealistic expectations of conversion
-they don't have to respond to the first time the gospel is presented.. keep presenting it.. mariah… can take time for people to grasp the gospel
-the catholics in rome him and his wife witnessed to.. were in it for the long hall.. can still hear the good news.. expose them over and over again before we push them to repent


the aspect of repentance

definition -turning from sin


scriptural teaching on repentance

a. Old Testament
2 Chronicles 7:14
Jonah 3:8-10 (3x)

b. New Testament
Matthew 4:17
Acts 2:38
2 Corinthians 7:10


elements in repentance

a. intellectual
b. emotional
c. volitional

1. sin is wrong - new understanding of our sin, we change our mind; emotional, we are sorry.. hatred of our sin
2. personal decision to renounce sin
3. pre-requisite to salvation - does not accomplish our salvation, but it appropriates our salvation
4. faith - trusting in Christ and what he has done, turning to him for forgiveness
the going out of the heart from itself, and rests on God
5. intellectual element of who Christ is and what he's done - must be a basic understanding


these three elements must be involved and present in repentance for it to be genuine (e.g. 2 Cor. 7:9-10)

a. intellectual
b. emotional
c. volitional


repentance is a prerequisite for salvation, and therefore an essential part of the Gospel

Matthew 3:2
Matthew 4:17
Luke 24:46-47
Acts 2:38
Acts 3:19
Acts 11:18
Acts 17:30


the aspect of faith - def

reliance, dependence on God


Warfield: faith is “the going out of the

heart from itself and its resting on God for all good”


elements in faith

d. these three elements must be involved and present in faith for it to be .....

a. intellectual - basic understanding of who God is and what he has done

b. emotional - approval of the message of Christ

c. volitional - personal depend on Christ to save us

d. saving faith



Ephesians 2:8-9 - faith is a gift from God
Romans 10:14-17; 2 Thessalonians 2:13 - faith ignited by the Word of God


ministry application =

we share the gospel, servants through whom people believe, 1 Cor 3:5, saturated in the gospel
- have you ceased to release that there is nothing you can do to save yourself?


the relationship of faith, repentance, and conversion

conversion involves both

Scripture puts faith and repentance together as different aspects of the

faith and repentance:

one act of coming to Christ for salvation


Scripture links these two
at times.....3

at times, faith or belief in Christ is the emphasis
Ephesians 2:8-9
John 3:16
Romans 10:9
Acts 16:31

at times, repentance is the emphasis
Acts 2:37-38
Acts 3:19
Acts 17:30
Luke 24:46-47

at times, both faith and repentance are mentioned together
Acts 2:38, 44
Acts 20:21
Hebrews 6:1


the issue is raised afresh among evangelicals with a significant minority demanding that conversion involves

in my view, this position commits several errors

only faith and has nothing to do with repentance


what is the order: conversion, then regeneration; or regeneration, then conversion?

N.B. issue is not one of temporal order, but logical order; the two occur simultaneously, but the issue is: does one convert because of God’s regenerating work, or does God regenerate a person because of his/her faith and repentance?

Calvinism/Reformed: regeneration, then conversion

Arminian: conversion, then regeneration

scriptural consideration: 1 John 5:1


faith by grace alone
foundation/ground = ?
propitiation/means = ?


foundation/ground = grace
propitiation/means = faith



1. one of the touchstones of evangelical theology
2. it distinguishes us from Catholic theology
split the western church
*r.c. - remission of sin but also the sanctification and renewal of the internal person -> this destroys justification
not just a historical debate—the doctrinal divide continues today
3. not just a historical debate—the doctrinal divide continues today


justification beliefs

-Hans Kung, Justification (1964), contends that Protestant and Roman Catholic views on justification are substantially the same (both Luther and the Council of Trent were extremist positions and thus the historical polarization was unnecessary and wrong) WRONG

-a joint Roman Catholic and Lutheran document entitled “Justification by Faith:” this attempt to bring the two churches to doctrinal accord on the issue states: “The hope of justification rests on Christ’s Gospel, which makes God’s mercy known in Christ”

-ARCIC (a joint Anglican and Roman Catholic document)

-Evangelicals and Catholics Together - got together and tried to find theology they agreed upon; catholics did not represent the catholic church, but themselves
We agree that justification is not earned by any good works or merits of our own; it is entirely God’s gift, conferred through the Father’s sheer graciousness, out of the love that he bears us in his Son, who suffered on our behalf and rose from the dead for our justification (Romans 4:25). In justification, God, on the basis of Christ’s righteousness alone, declares us to be no longer his rebellious enemies but his forgiven friends, and by virtue of his declaration it is so. . . . We understand that what we here affirm is in agreement with what the Reformation traditions have meant by justification by faith alone (sola fide). (“The Gift of Salvation”)

-the “new perspective on Paul”


justification distinguishes us from “liberal” Christians/post evangelicals who maintain that

God’s attitude is one of fatherly/paternal affection, no legal guilt upon us


it is a legal declaration; a forensic speech act of God

stand fully righteous because the Son’s righteousness is now ours
romans 4:5 not guilty


it deals with our standing before God

legal matter - we have fully accomplished all manner of righteousness because of Christ’s righteousness is credit to us


it does not involve a change in

our nature or character


we have a two-fold problem with original sin

1. one original guilt -bear adams guilt
2. two original corruption - come into this world sinful - inherited this

1. original guilt removed by justification
2. original corruption is overcome by regeneration and sanctification - he changes our being


two acts of God in applying salvation deal with these two problems -

sweet exchange


scriptural teaching on justification

Old Testament
-to declare righteous; especially to declare that a person is in harmony with the demands of the law
Deuteronomy 25:1; Proverbs 17:15

New Testament
δικαιοω (dikaioō): to declare just; to justify (as opposed to condemn)
Romans 3:20-28
Romans 4:5-7
Romans 8:33-34


the nature of justification

this forensic act is composed of a two-fold declaration by God:

1. we have no more penalty for our sins - forgiveness - God removes all liability for punishment for our sins, all sins, past present and future are dealt with
Romans 4:6-8; 8:1; 32-34

2. we are righteous in God’s sight

Romans 5:19 - righteous because of Christ’s obedience
how does this come about?
God imputes Christ’s righteousness on us
God credits us with Christ’s righteousness

Romans 3:21-22; 4:3 (quoting Genesis 15:6) and 4:22-25


it is an instantaneous act, not a



God’s declaration of righteousness is not based on

-thus, justification does not change us internally and it is not a declaration based on any inherent goodness or performed works
-Romans 4:5 - God justifies the ungodly
-no merit in Abram - he trusts God to fulfill the promise

the Catholic understanding is that justification changes us internally and makes us actually righteous in character; then God declares us righteous based on the fact that we actually are righteous

an actual condition or character of righteousness in us; the basis is Christ’s perfect righteousness


the Catholic view leads to

varying degrees of justification
-one can be more or less justified based on whether one is actually more or less righteous (WORKS BASED)
-commit a sin - lose that justifying grace
Protestant -> justification is a completed act; no levels or degrees, you either are justified or not 100% or not, does not allow for increase or decrease


the difference between justification and regeneration

justification - judgement from God where he declares us not guilty but righteous

regeneration - is an act of God in us that transforms our character;


the ground of justification and its appropriation

its ground (Romans 3:23-24) =

Grace of God


justification by grace stands opposed to

justification by works/merit:
Romans 3:20 - no one can be justified by works, it is grace of along
Titus 3:7
Ephesians 2:8-9
Grace of God
righteousness of Christ imputed on our account


its appropriation (Romans 3:23-24) =

by faith alone (not meritoriouss in anyway, it is not a work, it is not the ground of salvation/justification, rather it in the means by which we appropriate the faith of God
posturing ourselves to receive God’s gift
Romans 3:25-28
Ephesians 2:8-9
Galatians 2:16
-not by baptism…. no no, not necc. for salvation
-protestants.. faith alone… romans 10 - verbal confession - acts, portrayed by baptism


ministry key: clarifying the gospel -

stop relying on everything you can do, to appropriate salvation
-it’s not I'm doing this (faith) and… what work
rom 4:1-5 workers earn their wages
do for works preformed
-abram could be proud if he wanted but this would be wrong… not justified by works, he believed God and was justified.. abrahams faith came before he was circumsized and before the law was given - not one whom works in order to be justified -
*have u ceased relying on everything you can do to proppriateion salvation


what if?

what would it mean for us if justification (God’s declaration of us as being not guilty but righteous) depended on internally changing our character so as to be actually righteous?

means were screwed; lives condemn us; walk around with a sense of condemnation
we would always be comparing ourselves to others.. and look at really bad people..
no assurance of salvation - martin luther’s place


- realized he would never be righteous enough;
but since justification is a forensic act of divine declaration based on God’s grace and not our actual condition, what does it mean for us?

Romans 5:1 - we have peace with God - reality of a redeemed, restored relationship with God

Romans 8:1 - we will never face the condemnation of God

Romans 8:30 - we look towards/forward to glorification - as our sured future,
-predestined, called, justified, glorified
-glorification is our certain and sure future