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Flashcards in Ethics in Health Care Deck (59):
1

principles, rules, guidelines, laws, codes attempting to find out what is the right thing to do

ethics

2

discipline that examines one's moral standards or standards of the society

ethics

3

standards that an individual or group has about what is right and rong, good or bad

morality

4

deals with matters that we think can seriously injure or seriously benefit humans
based on impartial considerations

moral standards

5

focus: me
punishment, reward, reciprocity

pre-conventional stage

6

moral development
stage 1

reward and punishment

7

Heinz shouldn't steal because he will get caught

stage 1
reward and punishment

8

moral development
stage 2
sense of empathy

individualism and exchange

9

Heinz should steal because that's his wife's life at stake

stage 2
individualism and exchange

10

focus: group/others
familiar society
loyalty to the group is important to the point of sacrificing own self

conventional stage

11

moral development
stage 3
earn approval by being nice or having good intentions

interpersonal concordance

12

it is ok for Heinz to steal the drug because he was trying to save his wife's life

stage 3
interpersonal concordance

13

moral development
stage 4
rules that are needed for the good of all/most

law and order

14

i recognize Heinz motive was good but I don't think he should steal because if everyone who needed something just stole it, then there would be chaos

stage 4
law and order

15

global perspective
examines values and norms of his/her group
redefines in tems of self-chosen moral principles such as justice

post-conventional stage

16

aware that people in a society hold conflicting views
believes all values and norms are relative and should be tolerated
emphasizes fair ways for reaching a consensus through democratic means

stage 5
social contract and individual rights

17

while i don' agree with Heinz's decision to steal, i do believe the wife's right to life takes precedence over the druggist's property rights

stage 5
social contract and individual rights

18

commitment to the universal principles of equal rights, social justice and respect for basic dignity

stage 6
universal principles

19

i suggest that Heinz, the wife, and the pharmacist act out each other's roles so that the pharmacist may see the wife's right to life has a higher value than the right to property.

stage 6
universal principles

20

proponent of the anatomy of an ethical decision

manuel velasquez

21

5 ethical frameworks

utilitarianism
Kantian ethics
virtue ethics
ethics of care
christian ethics

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actions and politics reevaluated based on benefits and costs they will impose on society

utilitarianism

23

merits of utilitarianism

simple
intuitive
impartial
efficient

24

true/flase
in utilitaranism, the end justifies the means

true

25

principles of the categorical imperative

principle of universality
principle of humanity

26

applied to anybody

universality

27

what if everybody did that? how would you like it if he did that to you?

reversability

28

never use humans as a means to an end point but as an end

humanity

29

derived from rationality
ethics of duty

Kantian ethics

30

categorical imperative can be safely prescribed as a law for everyone

Kantian ethics

31

action is right if it is what a virtuous person would do

virtue ethics

32

main proponents of virtue ethics

socrates, plato, aristotle

33

characteristics which make a person the best he/she could be

virtue

34

morality is based on what will bring about the best that a person can be
emphasis not on action to be take out but on what can be done to produce the sort of character that instinctively does the right thing

virtue ethics

35

action should emanate particular care of relationships

ethics of care

36

proponent of ethics of care

carol giligan

37

sees fundamental value of concrete communities and communal relationships that should be preserved and maintained

communitarian ethics

38

we exists in a web of relationships and thus must preserve that web as best as we could
tailor fit according to the community you are working with

ethics of care

39

5 central values in ethics of care

moral attention
sympathetic understanding
relationship awareness
accommodation
response

40

there is recognition of the existence of a supernatural being, whose existence is a fact

christian ethics

41

christian ethics vs. kantian ethics

agrees with universality and humanity
not as rigid and reason-based

42

christian ethics vs. virtue ethics

agrees with importance of forming the character of the decision maker
self-actualization is not the ultimate goal but a by-product of putting God first

43

christian ethics vs. ethics of care

similar (call to love one's neighbor)
when conflicting, love of God takes precedence over love of neighbor

44

christian ethics vs. utilitarianism

both weigh things
difference in the definition of the good

45

utility is calculated through the 6 variables

bentham's hedonic calculus

46

6 variables in calculating utility according to bentham's hedonic calculus

intensity
duration
certainty
proximity
fecundity
purity

47

chance of being followed by similar sensations

fecundity

48

chance of being followed by sensations of the opposite kind

purity

49

4 principles of ethcis

nonmaleficence
beneficence
respect for autonomy
justice

50

do no harm

nonmaleficence

51

one ought to provide benefits for others

beneficence

52

one ought to balance benefits with risk to produce the best overall results

net utility

53

one ought to act in such a way taht enables another person to act fully in accordance with his/her self-chosen plan

respect for autonomy

54

autonomy is present if the person has

liberty
agency

55

free from controlling influences

liberty

56

has capacity for intentional action

agency

57

one ought to give what is due a person

justice

58

angeles model for ethical reasoning

gather the facts
identify stakeholders
articulate the dilemma
list the alternatives
compare values
determine consequences behind options
make a decision

59

UNESCO model for ethical decision-making

fact deliberation
value deliberation
duty deliberation
test of consistency
final decision