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evaluation\research in behavioural approach to EXPLAIN phobias strengths

- Watson and Rayner, little Albert, 11 months old, white fluffy objects and rat associated with loud scary noise, developed a phobia.
- di Gallo 20% ppl that make car accidents develop phobia and avoid travelling by car (cc and oc)
- effective therapies


evaluation\research on treating phobias strengths

- ost et al 90% reduced anxiety of specific phobia after first session of flooding
- Wolpe forced a girl with car phobias into a car and dived for hours until phobia was extinguished
-brosnan found systematic desensitisation effective in technophobia


reliability in diagnosing shizophrenia (one research)

-beck 1962 sodenberg 2005 concordance diagnosis 54% to 81%


cultural bias in diagnosing shizophrenia

-harriston et all found a over diagnosis of West Indians patients in Bristol
-copeland found the same patient being diagnosed with schizophrenia 69% if practitioner American and 2% if British


gender bias in diagnosing schizophrenia

-loring and Powell found that 290 psychiatrist diagnosing same symptoms diagnosed 56% if male and 20% if female
not as clear with female practitioner


validity in diagnosing schizophrenia

-rosenhan found that symptoms were still seen in pseudo patients in a psychiatric unit - labelled
-symptoms overlap


evaluation\research in behavioural approach to phobias weaknesses

- Davey only 7% spider phobia recalled traumatic event with spider, there must be another explanation.


evaluation\research on treating phobias weaknesses

- flooding unethical, only if in good physical health
- is imagination applicable in vivo?
- works better with simple phobias


treating depression stenghts

- most effective
- David et al ppt treated with REBT compared to treated with drugs after 6 months and found better outcomes
- patient in charge works out self help strategies


treating depression weaknesses

- derubeis et all may only be effective with trained practitioner
- patient can become dependent of therapist
- needs verbal skills and to be able to speak about inner feelings


cognitive approach to explain depression strengths

- beevers et all 27 females depression measured high or low 3 stimuli sad happy or neutral face different brain action when sad
- saisto pregnant - neg thinking no chance personal goals, depression more likely
- considers thoughts and beliefs
- treatment is successful


cognitive approach to depression weaknesses

- faulty thinking can be a consequence (chemical imbalance)
- less success in manic bipolar disorder
- ignores genetic explanation of inherited depression
and behavioural explanation supported by Coleman


genetic explanation of schizophrenia strengths

- gottesman 40 twin studies 48% mz 17% dz concordance (same shared environment)
- shields mz in different families 50%
- adoption studies support


genetic explanation of schizophrenia weaknesses

- no 100% concordance
- socially sensitive
- shared environment in family studies
- other explanations ignored


biochemical factors to explain schizophrenia strengths

- antipsychotics block dopamine receptors and reduce symptoms
- amphetamines increase dopamine receptors activity and cause schizophrenia like symptoms in ppl without schizophrenia
- iversen found excess dopamine in post mortem study


biochemical factors to explain schizophrenia weaknesses

- antipsychotics only work for positive symptoms
- correlational
- Lloyd suggested that abnormal family circumstances lead to high dopamine levels and trigger schizophrenia symptoms


evolutionary explanation of schizophrenia evaluation

- strong genetic link there must be an evolutionary explanation
- little evidence, difficult to prove


neurological factors to explain schizophrenia strengths

- Johnstone found enlarged ventricles and suggested link to a reduction of temporal and frontal lobe
- tilo found with fmri a negative correlation between suffers and activation of wernicke's area (coherent speech)


neurological factors to explain schizophrenia weaknesses

- also ppl without schizophrenia have enlarged ventricles and not all schizophrenia suffers have
- correlational


family dysfunction to explain schizophrenia strengths

- Tienari studied adopted children with biological mother with schizophrenia, if adopted by healthy families= 5.8% development in dysfunctional families= 36.8%
- patino 7 problems associated eg child abuse found in migrants that at least 3/7 were 4 times more likely to develop schizophrenia


family dysfunction to explain schizophrenia weaknesses

- ignores biological causes
- blame family and parents
- studies retrospective could be the condition that disrupted the family


cognitive explanation of schizophrenia strengths

- neufeld compared cognitive processes of schizophrenia suffers with control group, schizophrenic took longer to encode stimuli and solve sum problems
- Meyer Lindenberg et all ppl with schizophrenia do worst in memory and reasoning tasks


cognitive explanation of schizophrenia weaknesses

- could be caused by high dopamine, symptom not cause
- doesn't fully explain, might need a link with biological explanation


socio cultural factors to explain schizophrenia strengths

Harrison et al found that ppl in deprived areas are more likely to develop it


socio cultural factors to explain schizophrenia weaknesses

correlational, social drift hypothese, live in deprived area because the dysfunction gives them a lower social status.


drug therapy for schizophrenia strengths

-successful, more ppl live in society
-most used and effective
-almost all other treatments use drugs along side
-Davis 100 studies found that antipsychotic are better than placebo 70%
-marder atypical effective when typical wasn't


drug therapy for schizophrenia weaknesses

- not very effective with negative symptoms
-ethical issue ' chemical straitjacket'
-most ppl short-time side effects
-long time diabetes and tardive dyskinesia
- Liberman 3/4 stops bc of side effects, in typical mostly muscular disorder in atypical mostly weight gain -treat symp not cause 'revolving door phenomenon'


what is revolving door phenomenon

patient constantly discharged and readmitted to hospital


what is the chemical issue chemical straight jaket

doesn't help the patient but controls behaviour


genetic explanation of ocd strengths

- Davis compared whole genome of ocd suffers and Tourette syndrome suffers and found a genetic correlation for both but with different gene architecture therefore they are distinct disorders
- tanag et all used dog, have a similar ocd and identifying gene is easier found a particular gene variation
- billet mz 68% dz 32% correlation