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Flashcards in sex and gender Deck (30)
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1

define sex

biologically male/female

2

define gender

way someone acts and identify themselves
-behavioural characteristics make you masculine/feminine

3

sex-roles

behaviour expected form man and woman

4

sex-roles stereotypes

ideas about sex roles widely held and tend to be inflexible and over generalised

5

research in sex-roles stereotypes

seavey
3-months-old introduced as :
girl
boy
a baby
-pps behaviour were different
-used sex-stereotyped toys (doll for girls)

6

who is someone said to be if it has a balanced combination of masculinity and femininity

androgynous

7

who and how investigated androgyny

bem
used a self-report questionnaire 'bet sex role inventory'
50f & 50m students rated personality traits as masculine/feminine
the most highly rated were used to form a questionnaire to measure the stereotypical traits of individuals
-rate form 1 to 7

8

what did bem think of high masculinity and femininity

- said to be psychologically androgynous
-advantageous in society, can cope with a range of situations

9

study on psychological androgyny

suggest that environmental factors are the cause:
-compared children raised in family that emphasises traditional gender roles and family that downplay them
-second one had higher androgyny

10

weaknesses of bem theory

-argued that androgyny is a life choice because is advantageous
-the questionnaire is reductionist, reduces masculinity and femininity in a single score
and is outdated (1974)

11

how do the biological influences on gender explain gender differences

brain development\activity:
-chromosomes
-hormones

12

how many chromosomes do human have

23 pairs

13

what is special about the 23rd?

decide whether you turn female or male
-XX female, ova contain an X chromosome
-XY male, sperm may contain either X or Y chromosome
if ovum is fertilised with Y carrying chromosome offspring will be male XY

14

what does the gene in Y chromosome cause

male genitalia
production of testosterone

15

what does testosterone affect, what may this explain?

affects brain development
-creating structural differences
-may explain gender

16

arguments on testosterone affecting the brain

-may affect structure but not function
-combined effect of hormonal and structural differences thought to lead to similar brain function
-hyde found in a meta-analysis that there was no difference or very small supporting that male and females are psychologically similar

17

what is chromosomal variation?

atypical sex chromosome patterns

18

which are the two syndromes with atypical chromosome patterns?

-klinefelter's syndrome
-turner's syndrome

19

what klinefelter's syndrome?

-males XXY
-sterile
tend to be less muscular
less facial\body hair
problems at using language
trouble with social interaction

20

what is turner's syndrome?

-females X or missing a part of second chromosome
-tend to be shorter
ovaries not to work (sterile)
don't have a usual puberty
often do less well at maths
porer spatial ability

21

what do hormones affect?

development of brain body and how they function

22

which hormones do males\females have?

m - androgens, testosterone
f - oestrogen
both present but in very different amount

23

what is the syndrome with more testosterone called? how does it affect males and females?

CAH syndrome
males - early sexual development
females - more masculine physically and in behaviours
- fast grow, early puberty
- physical abnormalities, ambiguous genitalia

24

what does CAH syndrome supports?

testosterone theory, is responsible of gender differences in behaviour

25

what can oestrogen lead to?

premenstrual tension
-feeling emotional, irritable, aggressive
-could be the reason behind some women crime

26

which hormone other than testosterone and oestrogen is an influence on gender

oxytocin

27

what is oxytocin associated with?

bonding attachment and social recognition

28

research in oxytocin

increased oxytocin on male improved facial recognition but didn't-t improve for non social recognition

29

how does oestrogen interact with oxytocin ?

increase the effect
more impact in females brain

30

what could oxytocin explain

gender differences in sociability and gender roles eg. parenting