EX1 Adaptive Immunity - Stiner Flashcards Preview

SP14 Microbiology > EX1 Adaptive Immunity - Stiner > Flashcards

Flashcards in EX1 Adaptive Immunity - Stiner Deck (42):
1

ICAM-1 or VCAM-1 are found on _______ cells and assist with T cell migration/stability

endothelial

2

Activated T cells must _____ to site of infection an be retained so that they can express their effector functions and eradicate virally infected cells

migrate

3

______ can be activated by T cells via ______ secretion

macrophages
IFN-γ

4

MAP kinases, protein kinase C, and calcineurin stimulate ______ production

CD8 T cells

5

CD8 cells lyse target cells via ______ _____ and ______

lytic granules
Fas-FasL

6

There are 3 types of lytic granules found in CD8 cells and they are...

Perforin (forms a pore)
granzymes (induces apoptosis)
granulysin (induces apoptosis)

7

_____ cells use the same mechanism of lysis target cells as CD8 cells do

NK

8

Granzyme B induces apoptosis by activating ________

caspases (specifically caspase 3 and 9)

9

Caspase 3 activation leads to _____ _____ ______ which induces apoptosis

caspase activated DNAase (CAD) [from cleavage iCAD)

10

FasL on _______ interacts with Fas (CD95) on _____ _____ which induces apoptosis

CTL
target cell

11

The Fas associated death domain (FADD) leads to signaling cascades that activate _______

caspase 8

12

CD4 T cells produce _____ which activates macrophages

IFN-γ

13

CD4 T cells produce cytokines to provide co-stimulation for ________ activation

CD8 T cell

14

CD4 T cells produce cytokines to enhance the activity of ____

APCs

15

True or False
Viruses can escape the immune response via inhibition of phagolysosome function, antigen presentation, blocking the transport of MHC-I from the RER, producing IL-10, and blocking cytokine activation of effector cells

True

16

Immune response to extracellular pathogens in initiated by ______ and ______

macrophages and neutrophils

17

Why is Th1 immunity referred to as a driver of cell mediated immunity?

it stimulates other cells in the immune response (i.e. cell mediated immunity) via IFN-γ

18

(Th1 or Th2) immunity drives the antibody response via isotope switching

Th2

19

True or False
The humoral immune response involves Th cell production

False; humoral immunity involved antibodies

20

True or False
Naive and activated B cells can produce antibody

False; naive B cells CANNOT produce antibodies

21

True or False
B cells can be activated by microbes and soluble antigen, and it primarily involved IgM

True

22

B cell exposure to microbes can result in changes in _____ and _____

phenotype and function

23

True or False
Isotype switching is not dependent upon T cells and cytokines

False; it IS dependent upon those things

24

The main cytokines that induce class switching are (2)

IFN-γ
IL-4

25

What is the most prevalent antibody isotope in the mouth

IgA

26

Long lived antibody producing plasma cells and memory B cells take up residence in the ____ _____ and _____ ____ _____

bone marrow
secondary lymph nodes

27

Active immunization is known as _______

vaccination

28

True or False
Active immunization is accomplished by the passive injection of preformed antibodies

False; passive immunization

29

This type of vaccine uses organisms whose virulence has been artificially reduced; is the most common vaccination

live attenuated vaccines

30

This vaccine uses closely related organism of lesser virulence

heterologous vaccines

31

This vaccine uses genetic engineering

Life recombinant vaccines

32

This vaccine is made when safe live vaccines have not been developed or when reversion to the wild type is common

killed vaccines

33

Subcellular fractions and recombinant proteins are (killed/live) vaccines

killed

34

This type of vaccination induces the antibody and CMI response typically with only one dosage

live vaccines

35

A danger of live vaccines is that there is a chance of _____ __ ______

reversion to virulence

36

True or False
live vaccines are more expensive to make than killed vaccines

False; killed vaccines are more expensive to prepare

37

Good vaccinations induce both _______ and _____ _____ immunity

humoral
cell mediated

38

Antibodies can neutralize ______ or _____; and opsonize _____ and facilitate ______

microbes
toxins
microbes
phagocytosis

39

Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity results in killing of _____ _____ cells

antibody coated

40

______ activities are enhanced by antibodies

complement

41

Which immunoglobulin is the only T cell independent antibody?

IgM

42

Antibody isotopes are influences by _______ interactions with _____ and by _____

B cell
dendritic cells
cytokines