EX1 Introduction - Bailey Flashcards Preview

SP14 Microbiology > EX1 Introduction - Bailey > Flashcards

Flashcards in EX1 Introduction - Bailey Deck (34):
1

True or False
Oral infections are the most common reason individuals seek treatment for an infectious disease

True

2

A _______ in an invasion of the body by a microbe that causes damage either directly or indirectly

infection

3

The six steps in the infectious disease process

1. Encounter
2. Entry
3. Colonization and/or invasion
4. Multiplication and/or spread
5. Damage
6. Outcome

4

The first line of defense against invading organisms is the _____

skin (innate immunity)

5

The skin provides protection from organisms via ________ of skin epithelium, its _______ surfaces, and the action of ______ and _______. This is the physical barrier

desquamation
mucosal
tears and saliva

6

The primary secreted compounds that are micobicidal are the ______ ______. This is the chemical barrier

antimicrobial peptides (AMPs; like lysozyme, definisns, etc. - are cationic)

7

The commensal microbes in our body are called the ______. This is the biological barrier

microbiota

8

These cells of this immune system are the first to respond to injury, do NOT respond to specific microbes, and are not antigen specific

Innate Immune cells

9

Innate immune cells are derived from (myeloid/lymphoid) cells

myeloid

10

The four cells of the innate immune system are

1. monocytes/macrophages
2. neutrophils
3. dendritic cells
4. granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, etc.)

11

These cells play a prominent role in responses to parasitic infections (and in allergy)

eosinophils

12

These cells are highly phagocytic; roughly 5% of circulating leukocytes

monocytes

13

These polymorphonuclear cells comprise over 95% of circulating granulocytes (50% of leukocytes) and contain very high dense lobular nuclei filled with enzymatic granules; primary function is to kill bacteria

neutrophils

14

These cells are phagocytic and can also present antigens to lymphocytes; principal cell that links innate and adaptive immunity

dendritic cell

15

Adaptive immune cells are of (myeloid/lymphoid) origin

lymphoid

16

There are two components to the adaptive immune response

humoral and cell-mediated

17

The humoral component of the adaptive immune response is (B or T) cell mediated

B cell mediated

18

The cell-mediated component of the adaptive immune response is (B or T) cell mediated

T cell mediated (helper T and cytotoxic T)

19

B cells are ___-___% of blood lymphocytes, produce _________ (of which neutralize antigens)

5-15%
immunogloblins (antibodies)
*also contains B-cell receptors (BCRs)

20

B cells which secrete a large quantity of immunoglobulins are called _______

plasma cells

21

Helper T cells compose ____-_____% of blood lymphocytes, CD___, MHC___, they coordinate the _____ ______, and secrete ______

45-65%
CD4
MHC-II
immune response
cytokines
*contains T cell receptors (TCRs)

22

Cytotoxic T cells compose ____-____% of blood lymphocytes, CD__, MHC___, and ______ virually infected and tumor cells

15-30%
CD8
MHC-I
kill
*contains T cell receptors (TCRs)

23

Cells of the adaptive immune system are activated at the site of infection or are they activated in the lymphoid tissues

They are activated in the lymphoid tissues; the activated antigen presenting cell (APC) circulates to the lymph activating naive T and B cells

24

Unique structures on microbes are referred to a ______ ______ _____ ______

pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)

25

The innate immune system uses ____ ____ ____ to recognize PAMPs

pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)

26

PRRs include receptors such as...

toll-like receptors
N-formyl-methionyl receptor
mannose receptor
scavenger receptor

27

TLRs intracellular component recognizes _____ and its extracellular component recognizes _______; upon activation activate the release of ______/_______, _____ molecules, and co-_______ molecules

viruses (mostly)
bacteria
cytokines/chemokines
adhesion
co-stimulatory

28

_______ is any substance that can be specifically bound by a cell of the adaptive immune response

antigen (Ag)

29

An _______ is an antigen that elicits and immune response

immunogen

30

A _______ induces immunological tolerance or immune non-responsiveness

Tolerogen

31

An antigen that causes an immediate hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction

Allergen

32

These cells nonspecifically kill virus infected and tumor cells

natural killer (NK)

33

B cells (can/can not) be directly activated my antigen

can; but T cells are often needed

34

T cells (can/can not) recognize antigen alone

can not