Final; Childhood Viral Diseases Flashcards Preview

SP14 Microbiology > Final; Childhood Viral Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final; Childhood Viral Diseases Deck (64):
1

What is the genome of the measles virus

-ssRNA

2

What type of virion does the measles virus have

enveloped

3

The fusion protein in the measles virus causes what

syncytia (mass containing several nuclei) formation

4

How is the measles virus transmitted

inhalation of aerosolized droplets

5

What is the incubation period of the measles virus

10-14 days
primary infection in respiratory epithelial tissues; primary viremia

6

What is characteristic of the the symptom onset of measles

the symptoms onset coincides with the second round of virus replication
occurs in LN, tonsils, lungs, GI tract, and spleen; secondary viremia

7

What is the recovery time for measles

approximately 20 days after infection

8

True or False
Measles is the most deadly of childhood rash/fever illnesses

True

9

What causes the characteristic rash of measles

viral and immune response damage to epithelial and endothelial cells
koplik spots

10

How does measles influence immune suppression

Interferes with CD46 and signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) receptors
also allows opportunistic infections

11

This is a rare; 1:1000 in children demyelinating disease

acute disseminated encephalitis (ADEM)

12

This is very rare; 1:1million in children, 7-10 years after infection, progressive neurological deterioration

subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)

13

What are the symptoms of measles

2-3 days fever and cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis
characteristic rash

14

How is measles diagnosed in the laboratory

virus isolation in culture (difficult)
serology
ELISA, RT-PCR

15

True or False
Measles is not very contagious

False; it is one of the most contagious diseases known

16

How much can humans spread measles

they are the only host
one illness in a naïve population can infect 15-20 people
people are infectious 2-3 prior to rash

17

What are some ways in preventing measles

vaccination (provides life long immunity)
vitamin A
there are no anti-virals

18

When was measles considered "eliminated" from the US

2000, but it is common in other countries
it arrives to the US through international travel

19

What is the genome of the respiratory syncytial virus

-ssRNA

20

What type of virion does the respiratory syncytial virus have

enveloped

21

What type of cells does the respiratory syncytial virus infect

ciliated ells in the respiratory tract epithelium

22

This protein in the respiratory syncytial virus creates the syncytia

fusion protein

23

How does the virus exit the cell

via budding

24

What is special about the respiratory syncytial virus in regards to respiratory tract infections

it is the most important viral agent of serious pediatric respiratory tract infections

25

How does one obtain the respiratory syncytial virus

via inhalation of aerosol
fomites

26

What is the incubation period of respiratory syncytial virus and where is it specifically found

4-5 days
lower respiratory tract 1-3 days after upper respiratory tract

27

How long is the recovery of the respiratory syncytial virus

7-12 days after symptom onset

28

Does the respiratory syncytial virus infect animals?

No, it only infects humans, no animal reservoir

29

Does respiratory syncytial virus infection result in life long immunity?

No, infants have an immature immune system and in the respiratory tract IgA is short lived

30

What are some risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus infection

attending day care
school aged siblings

31

What would put someone at risk for a more severe respiratory syncytial virus infection

premature birth
male
second-hand exposure to tobacco smoke
lack of breast feeding

32

What is the main prevention of the respiratory syncytial virus

no antivirals
no vaccine
can use passive immunoprophylasis; humanized monoclonal antibody (once a month)

33

What is the genome of the varicella zoster virus

dsDNA

34

What is the virion of the varicella zoster virus

enveloped

35

What is the main difference about the proteins varicella zoster virus produces

there are hundreds of proteins

36

What is the replication of the varicella zoster virus

active cell needed for replication
resting cell (neuron) = latent infection (circular genome)
will infect neighboring cell first

37

What is the transmission of the varicella zoster virus

inhalation of aerosolized droplets

38

What is the incubation period for the varicella zoster virus

10-21 days

39

What are the symptoms of the varicella zoster virus

chicken pox;
fever, malaise, headache
rash 1-2 days after the symptom onset, lasting for 3-6 days

40

Where is the chickenpox rash primarily located

scalp, face, and trunk

41

What is the recovery timeframe of the varicella zoster virus

usually by 2 weeks of symptom onset; cell mediated immunity most important

42

What happens upon re-activation of the varicella zoster virus

shingles

43

What are the prevention strategies of chickenpox

vaccination; life long immunity
antivirals; but it cannot eliminate latent virus because the DNA is not actively being replicated

44

What is the genome of the poliovirus

+ssRNA

45

What is the virion of the poliovirus

non-enveloped

46

What specific proteins does the poliovirus contain

4 protein capsid

47

What does the virus particle do to the cell

it creates a pore in the cell membrane

48

Where is the poliovirus prevalent

in endemic areas such that infections are most common in naïve children

49

How is the poliovirus transmitted

ingestion of material infected by the virus

50

Where is the location of the poliovirus manifestation

Peyers patches of the small intestine; minor viremia
secondary replication; major viremia
mild disease

51

How long does fecal shedding of the poliovirus occur

for 2 weeks

52

How prevalent is CNS involvement in polio

1:200 of infections
risk factors; physical exertion, trauma, and tonsillectomy

53

How does the poliovirus affect the CNS

it replicates in the gray matter of brain and spinal cord
limb paralysis from anterior horn damage
respiratory paralysis from damage to the medulla oblongata

54

What are the prevention strategies of the poliovirus

vaccination; 2 available
targeted for eradication

55

What is the genome of the rotavirus

dsRNA, 11 segments

56

What is the virion of the rotavirus

non-enveloped

57

What is special about the rotavirus replication

there is membrane disruption
genome is never exposed

58

How is rotavirus transmitted

ingestion of material containing the virus

59

What is the incubation of rotavirus

2 days; vomiting and fever

60

What are the symptoms of rotavirus

diarrhea 2-3 days after vomiting, 3-8 days in duration

61

How long does viral shedding last

weeks before symptom onset and days after the recovery

62

When is severe disease of rotavirus common

most common is 6-24 month children

63

How is rotavirus diagnosed

antigens in the stool

64

What are the prevention strategies of rotavirus

infant vaccines
no antivirals
good hygiene
treatment via oral rehydration