EX1 Cytokines/Chemokines - Bailey Flashcards Preview

SP14 Microbiology > EX1 Cytokines/Chemokines - Bailey > Flashcards

Flashcards in EX1 Cytokines/Chemokines - Bailey Deck (53):
1

Proteins secreted by cells that mediate the functions of the immune system

cytokines

2

the term ________ refers to the fact that many proteins are produced by one immune cell to act on neighboring cells

interleukin (more specific than cytokine)

3

Cytokine secretion is _____ and ___-_____; it is not ________

brief and self-limited
instantaneous

4

Cytokine action is _____ and ________; they act in _______

pleitropic (multiple functions) and redundant
synergy

5

Cytokines ________ each other

influence

6

Cytokines can act _______ and ________

locally and systemically

7

Cytokines initiate their actions by binding to _______ membrane-bound receptors

specific

8

Cytokine receptor ligation leads to _____ _____ which alters _____ _____

gene expression
cellular function

9

True or False
Cytokines work either for the innate system or the adaptive system; not both

False; many cytokines overlap systems

10

cells that produce cytokines include…..

lymphocytes
monocytes/macrophages
all the cells of innate/adaptive immunity
endothelial/epithelial cells

11

Cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1α/β IL-6, IL-12, IFN (and others) are _______

pro-inflammatory

12

Cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β are _______

anti-inflammatory

13

Cytokines are important for immunity because they ______ immune cells, ______ immune cells to site of infection, and help ______ the _______ immune response

activate
recruit
activate
adaptive

14

This cytokine is the principal mediator for the acute inflammatory response to gram-negative bacteria, endotoxic shock, and chronic inflammatory conditions

TNF-α

15

This cytokine has two forms, an α and β, which bind to the same receptor and have the same function

IL-1

16

This cytokine is primarily produced by mononuclear phagocytes and neutrophils

IL-1

17

This cytokine is involved with induction of inflammatory response

IL-6

18

This cytokine is produced by monocytes, macrophages, NK cells, DC cells, and T cells

TNF-α

19

This cytokine is primarily produced by macrophages and T cells

IL-6

20

This cytokine stimulates the recruitment of neutrophils, monocytes, and activated T cells to the site of infection

TNF-α

21

True or False
TNF-α can have detrimental effects as well as beneficial effects

True; if it is found in too high of quantities it can cause septic shock

22

This cytokine is primarily involved with induction of the acute phase response

IL-6

23

During an infection, what causes you to be sick

cytokines (IL-6/IL-1) on brain (?)

24

This cytokine is the primary mediator of innate immune response to intracellular pathogens

IL-12

25

This cytokine is important for the generation of adaptive immune response that would be appropriate for intracellular pathogens - Th1 immunity

IL-12

26

IL-12 stimulates the activation of macrophages via ______

IFN-γ

27

This cytokine can be produced be NK cells, Th cells, and Tk cells

IFN-γ

28

These cytokines are involved with Th1 type immunity

IFN-γ (and IL-2)

29

These cytokines are involved with Th2 type immunity

IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 (and IL-2)

30

This cytokine is primarily produced by cells of the adaptive immune response

IL-2

31

This cytokine is needed for the growth, survival, and differentiation of T cells (both helper and killer)

IL-2

32

____ _____ is IL-2 dependent

clonal expansion

33

The adaptive immunity most effective against INTRAcellular pathogens is (Th1 or Th2)

Th1

34

The adaptive immunity most effective against INTERcellular(extracellular) pathogens is (Th1 or Th2)

Th2

35

The primary function of this cytokine is to facilitate the ability of macrophages to kill intracellular microbes; enhances microbicidal activity and increase the population of opsonizing antibodies

IFN-γ

36

IFN-γ will also increase _____ ______

antigen presentation; so that Tk cells can kill intracellular pathogens

37

This cytokine is a key Th2 cytokine and is the primary stimulus for Ig class switching to Ig___

IL-4
IgE

38

This cytokine can induce naive Th cells to differentiate into Th2 cells (just like IL-4) and also induces Ig isotope switching to Ig____; and it stimulates mucous production in gut and lung

IL-13
IgE

39

This cytokine can facilitate inflammation by increasing adhesion molecule and chemokine expression

IL-13

40

This cytokine's primary job is in eosinophil (protection of parasites) differentiation, proliferation, and activation

IL-5

41

IL-5 (and other Th2 cytokines) are involved in ______ responses

allergic

42

Innate cytokines are often considered _______

inflammatory

43

IL-12 and IFN help to activate the (adaptive/innate) immune response

adaptive (particularly Th1)

44

This cytokine inhibits the production of IL-12 and is produced by macrophages, dendritic cells and Th cells

IL-10

45

These are chemotactic cytokines and make up the largest category of cytokines; their primary role is to regulate migration of cells to peripheral tissue or lymph

chemokines

46

Classification of chemokines is based on the number and location of ________ _____ ______

N-terminal cysteine resides
CXC (cysteine, something, cysteine)
CC (cysteine-cysteine)
etc.

47

Chemokine receptors bind with (only one/multiple) chemokines and can be found on (specific/many different) cells

multiple
many different

48

Chemokines are responsible for ______ _____

increasing affinity

49

Chemokines increase affinity by creating a ____ _____ of which immune cells follow

concentration gradient

50

This type of cytokine receptor binds IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-13; its binds via Jak-STAT

Type I

51

This type of cytokine receptor binds IFN-γ and IL-10; binds via Jak-STAT

Type II

52

This type of cytokine receptor binds TNF-α; binds via multiple signaling cascades (can lead to TF expression or apoptosis)

TNF receptor superfamily

53

This type of cytokine receptor binds IL-1; signals similarly to TLRs

IL-1 receptor family