Exam 1 Flashcards Preview

Gross 1 > Exam 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (82):
1

Basic structure unit of a muscle is the ___________

Muscle Fiber (cell)

2

Muscle fibers are grouped into bundles known as ______

Fasciculi

3

Muscles fibers & fasciculi are bound together by:

Connective tissue

4

3 layers of connective tissue

Endomysium, Perimysium, Epimysium

5

Endomysium

Delicate connective tissue sheath which surrounds each individual muscle fiber & connects it to adjacent muscle fibers.

6

Perimysium

More dense layer which surrounds each fasciculi & divides the muscle into a series of separate compartment

7

Epimysium

Dense layer of connective tissue which surrounds the entire muscle & separates the muscle from surrounding tissue, organs & other muscles. The epimysium is continuous w/ deep fascia in the area & will continue as the tendon of the muscle.

8

The contractile units of the muscle

Myofibrils

9

Each fiber is contained w/in a tough, specialized membrane known as the _____________

Sarcolemma

10

Exercise may increase muscle size up to an average of about _____

25%

11

Type of increase in the size of a muscle which is due to an increase in the size of each INDIVIDUAL muscle fiber.

Hypertrophy

12

An increase in the size of a muscle due to an actual increase in the number of muscle fibers

Hyperplasia

13

Due to subjecting the muscle fibers to HIGH tension overload (high resistance), which includes injury to the individual fibers, which is fallowed by a regenerative period

Hyperplasia

14

The designation of muscles being red (dark) or white (light) is based on the amount of the _______ w/in the majority of fibers found in the respective muscle

Sarcoplasm

15

Type 1 Fibers (dark)

fibers associated with endurance activities

16

Are associated w/ relatively higher levels of continuous metabolic activity & thus associated w/ aerobic metabolism

Type 1 Fibers

17

Type 2 Fibers (light) Activities:

Found in muscles that are utilized for quick, more powerful activities & related to speed & strength. Used in sprinting, weightlifting

18

Which muscle fibers are anaerobic metabolism

Type 2 Fibers

19

-Exhibit characteristics which are b/t type 1 & type 2 fibers
- Contract faster than type 1 but slower than type 2
- have a greater resistance to fatigue but resemble type 2 fibers

Intermediate fibers

20

Weight lifters & sprinters contain a higher proportion of what type of muscle fiber?

Type 2 fibers

21

Marathon runners contain a higher proportion of what type of muscle fibers?

Type 1 fibers

22

The cell membrane ________

Sarcolemma

23

Elaborate, continuous tubular network that runs both parallel & perpendicular to the myofibrils

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

24

Function to store & transport calcium ions

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

25

Tubular invaginations of the sarcolemma which allow electrical impulse to enter the muscle fiber & make their way to the myofibrils

Transverse Tubules (T-system)

26

Myoglobin

red protein pigment found in the sarcoplasm of the fiber

27

Gives color to the muscle & stores needed oxygen the fibers utilize for its metabolism

Myoglobin

28

Has greater affinity for oxygen that that of hemoglobin

Myoglobin

29

Contractile apparatus of the muscle fibers. Formed from longitudinally oriented bundles of thick & thin filaments known as myofilaments

Myofibrils

30

I- bands

Light areas where actin is found

31

A -Bands

Dark areas where myosin is found

32

H-bands

Light areas in the middle of each dark band

33

M- bands

Thin dark line down the center of each H- band

34

Z-lines (discs)

Thin dark line in the middle of each I-band

35

-Main protein elements of the skeletal muscle fibers & consist of Actin
- Found mainly in the I-bands & myosin
- Found mainly in the A- bands
-They have the ability to interact w/ each other & thus create movement

Contractile Proteins

36

These proteins act to inhibit the interaction of actin & myosin & prevent indiscriminate movement.

Regulatory Proteins

37

Troponin & tropomyosin

2 most common regulatory proteins
Both of these regulatory proteins recognize calcium as the signal to allow actin & myosin to interact w/ one another

38

Eliminates the inhibition caused by the regulatory proteins & allow subsequent muscular contractions to occur

Calcium

39

The nerve impulse from the transverse tubules stimulate the release of _______ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum

Calcium

40

The released ______ than binds w/ the troponin molecules on the actin filament

Calcium

41

Binding of _____ w/ troponin actually changes the shape of the nearby tropomyosin molecule & exposing the myosin binding site on the actin molecule

Calcium

42

Meaning of ATP

Adenosine Triphosphate

43

The addition of ____ allows the system to operate, by allowing myosin to interact w/ actin

ATP

44

Energy is provided by the breakdown of ________ into ______ & a free phosphate ion. This reaction releases a large amount of energy (heat)

Adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) into Adenosine-di-phosphate (ADP)

45

The movement of a muscle is the result of the continuous breakdown & reconstruction of ____

ATP

46

Muscles use 2 general metabolic methods to provide ATP one works _______ and the other works _______

Aerobically and the other works anaerobically

47

-Takes place in the mitochondria
- More efficient way to produce ATP in a muscle fiber

Aerobic Pathway

48

- The pathway creates more energy than is needed for the production of ATP & excess energy is released as heat & contribute to keeping the body at its most efficient temp
-Pathway prefers fatty acids to produce ATP
- Fatty acids are stored in body's fat cells as triglycerides & released in the blood during exercise

Aerobic pathway

49

Exercise from a metabolic point of view: Phase 1

Will last for the 1st few minutes & creatine phosphate & glycogen are the primary fuel sources. As much as 20% of the total glycogen that is stored in a muscle may be utilized during this phase

50

Exercise from a metabolic point of view: Phase 2

See a shift in metabolism to the more efficient aerobic metabolism & the use of fatty acids to produce ATP

51

Exercise from a metabolic point of view: Phase 3

Occurs as exercise intensifies, will see muscle fibers going back to the anaerobic production of ATP & thus the utilization of the remaining stored glycogen, During this phase that lactic acid can accumulate w/in the fibers

52

Muscle fibers run approximately the whole length of the muscle. PARALLEL to the long axis

Paralle or strap (power)

53

Muscle fibers run OBLIQUE to the long axis of the muscle

Pennate

54

Tendon lies along one side of the muscle & the fibers pass obliquely to the tendon

Unipennate (endurance)

55

Tendon lies in the center of the muscle & the fibers pass to it from each side

Bipennate

56

A muscle built for ________ has fibers that are short, more numerous & in the pennate arrangement

Endurance (type I)

57

Muscle built for _______ has fibers that are longer, less numerous & in parallel arrangement

Power (type II)

58

Muscle or muscles which are most responsible for carrying out a particular action

Prime mover or Agonist

59

Assist the prime mover in performing an action.
- Stabilize a joint which is the mover pass but do not move
-

Synergist

60

Muscle that produces the opposite e effect from the agonist

Antagonist

61

When a muscle contracts, its antagonists automatically relaxes

Reciprocal Innervation

62

In a newborn, both agonists & antagonists contract @ the same time. Also seen in individuals w/ sensory nerve damage

Co-reflex phenomenon

63

Pathology of the central nervous system

Amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

64

Pathology of the peripheral nervous system

Guillan- Baree syndrome starts off w/ flu like symptoms

65

Pathology of the neuromuscular junction

Myesthemia Gravis, Botulism

66

Pathology of the individual muscle fibers

Muscular dystrophies (Duchenue Found in males)

67

Prolonged immobilization of the joints or chronic joint disorder (arthritis)

Atrophy

68

Term used to designate any diminishing of the vascular supply to a muscle, which will result in the loss of the muscle fiber w/in a few hours. May be due to an obstruction or trauma

Ischemic Necrosis (Ischemia)

69

If a muscle remains in a shortened state for a prolonged period of time, it will develop a persistent & sometime permanent shortening. This may develop in certain types of disease

Contracture

70

In the condition known as _________ ________, satellite cells are prevented from replacing damaged muscle fibers

Muscular dystrophy

71

Shoulder girdle consist of:

Scapula & clavicle

72

_________ ossification in which the bone cells replace a primitive type of connective tissue known as __________

Intramembranous; mesenchyme

73

Ossification of the clavicle

- 1st bone to undergo ossification
- undergoes both intramembranous & endochondral

74

Ossification of the scapula

- 7 centers of ossification (1 primary & 6 secondary)
- primary center develops around the 8th week of development
- 6 secondary ossification - 2 for the acromion process, 2 for the coracoid process, 1 each for the medial border and inferior angle

75

Ossification of the humerus

8 ossification centers (1 primary 7 secondary)
- primary for the shaft which develops early in fetal development
- Secondary occurs after birth to late adolescents & include centers for the head, greater tuberosity, lesser tuberosity, medial epicondyle, lateral epicondyle, capitulum & trochlea
- Bone completes ossification about 18-20 years of age

76

This artery is direct continuation of the subclavian artery, the vessel will become the brachial artery

Axillary artery

77

Axillary artery has 6 specific branches:

1. Superior Thoracic
2. Thoracoacromial
3. Lateral Thoracic
4. Subscapular
5. Anterior Humeral Circumflex
6. Posterior Humeral Circumflex

78

- 1st branch to come off of the axillary artery, just as the vessel emerges from under the clavicle.
- Supplies the pectoralis major/ minor, Subclavius muscle, and the wall of the thorax

Superior Thoracic supplies

79

Short truck which curls around the upper border of the pectoralis minor & divides into 4 branches (acromial, pectoral, clavicular, deltoid)

Thoracoacromial

80

- Appears along the lateral border of the pectoralis minor.
- Supplies the Serratus Anterior, both pectoral muscles, mammary gland, and the intercostal muscles

Lateral Thoracic

81

- Largest branch of the axillary artery & found parallel & lateral to the lateral thoracic branch, divides into 2 branches
- Thoracodorsal and Circumflex scapular

Subscapular

82

Arteries form a ring around the surgical neck of the humerus. Run w/ the axillary nerve & supply the deltoid muscle, shoulder joint, teres muscles & the proximal part of the humerus

Anterior and posterior Humeral circumflex arteries