Quiz 4 Bones of forearm (Exam 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 4 Bones of forearm (Exam 2) Deck (60):
1

Articulates proximally w/ humerus @ the elbow & with the ulna @ the proximal radioulnar joint

Radius

2

Articulates distally w/ the ulna @ the disal radioulnar joint & with the scaphoid & lunate to form the wrist joint

Radius

3

Pivot bone, which moves during pronation & supination

Radius

4

Proximal end articulates w/ the humerus @ the elbow joint & the radius @ the proximal radioulnar joint

Ulna

5

Distally the bone articulates w/ the radius to form the distal radioulnar joint

Ulna

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_______ ______ of the wrist found b/t the distal end of the ulna & carpal bones

Articular disc of the wrist

7

Ossification of the radius & ulna completes around the same time? True or false

True

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True/ false fractures of the radius & ulna are usually due to severe & direct trauma & produces a transverse fracture of the shaft of both bones

True

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Fracture @ the distal end of the Radius ONLY & is one of the most common fractures in adults

Colles fractures

10

Type of fracture that occurs when an individual fall on an outstretched hand w/ the forearm pronated

Colles fractures

11

Distal fragment is displaced POSTERIORLY, producing a shortening of the radius

Colles fracture

12

AKA "dinner fork deformity"

Colles fracture

13

Due to a fall on the back of the hand & is basically a reverse Colles fracture, with the distal fragment displaced anteriorly

Smith's fractures

14

Ossification of the carpal bones

capitate & hamate
triquetral
lunate
trapezium, trapezoid, scaphoid
pisiform

15

1. protect & stabilize the tendons
2. Change the angle of the tendons as they pass to their insertion

Functions of the sesamoid bones

16

Most commonly fractures carpal bone

scaphoid

17

Fractures of the Hamate

ulnar nerve is close to the hook of the hamate & may be injured with this fracture

18

1. Pronator teres
2. flexor carpi radialis
3. palmaris longus
4. flexor carpi ulnaris

Anterior superficial forearm muscles

19

Anterior superficial forearm muscles have a common tendon of ORIGIN:

Medial epicondyle of the humerus

20

Compression of median nerve in the proximal forearm.

Pronator teres syndrome

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Anterior Intermediate forearm

Flexor digitorum superficials

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1. Flexor digitorum profundus
2. flexor pollicis longus
3. pronator quadratus

Deep anterior forearm muscles

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- Loss or weakened pronation
- abnormal & weak flexion @ the wrist joint (ulnar deviation)
- Weakened abduction of the hand
- atrophy of the thenar muscles w/ loss of opposition & loss or weakness of other movements of the 1st digit. The term "ape hand"
- Sensory loss over the lateral 2/3 of the palmar surface of the hand

Median Nerve damage

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If you suspect median nerve damage what test can you perform?

- motor test
- sensory test

25

Have pt. make a circle w/ their thumb & index finger, the examiner attempts to pull the 1st digit away from 2nd by applying force to the proximal phalanx of digit one

Motor test

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Assess cutaneous sensation at the tip of the 2nd digit . This is the part of the median nerve's cutaneous distribution which is the least susceptible to variation

Sensory test of the median nerve

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Most common area of compression or injury of the _____ ____ is at or just distal to the elbow joint. Injury here may cause atrophy of the flexor carpi ulnaris & half of the flexor digitorum profundus

Ulnar nerve damage

28

- Impaired or weakened adduction of the hand
- weakened or abnormal flexion of the hand (radial deviation
- Muscles fo the hand associated w/ the 5th digit will undergo atrophy
- Difficulty in making a fist

Injury to the ulnar nerve damage

29

Compromise or damage to the ulnar nerve at the wrist, where is passes b/t the pisiform & the hook of the hamate. Individual will show loss of sensation in the medial one & half digits & may show atrophy of the hyprothenar muscles

Guyon Tunnel or canal syndrome

30

1. Brachioradialis
2. Extensor Carpi Radialis longus
3. Extensor Carpi Radilais brevis
4. Extensor Digitorum
5. Extensor Digiti Minimi
6. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris

Superficial Posterior forearm muscles

31

painful condition of the elbow which involves repetitive use of the superficial posterior forearm muscles

Lateral Epicondylitis / Tennis Elbow

32

Pt. will point @ the lateral epicondyle of the humerus & may indicate that the pain runs down the lateral aspect of their forearm

Lateral Epicondylitis / Tennis Elbow

33

Having the pt. make a fist & hyperextend their hand and applying pressure to the pts. hand attempting to force pts. hand into flexion and the pt. experiences sudden severe pain in the area of the lateral epicondyle

Lateral Epicondylitis / Tennis Elbow
(Subluxation of C5 may also cause pain in this region also)

34

- Condition in which there is a sudden, severe tension on one of the long extensor tendons, where it may avulse at its attachment.
- Deformity results from the distal IP joint being forced into extreme flexion,
- Result is that the individual is not able to extend the DIP joint of the involved digit

Mallet finger

35

1. Supinator
2. Abductor pollicis longus
3. Extensor pollicis brevis
4. Extensor pollicis longus
5. Extensor indicis

Deep posterior forearm muscles

36

Tendons of extensor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis & abductor pollicis longus

Tendons that make up the Anatomical Snuffbox

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Floor of the snuffbox is formed by the:

styloid process of the radius, scaphoid and trapezium bones

38

Condition in which there is inflammation of the tendons of the abductor pollicis longus & the extensor pollicis brevis w/in their common fibrous sheath

DeQuervain's Disease or Tenosynovitis Stenosans

39

Pts. complain of pain at the lateral aspect of their wrist & may notice pain radiation proximally & distally from that point

DeQuervain's Disease or Tenosynovitis Stenosans

40

Most common cause of injury is a fracture at the shaft of the humerus

Damage to the Radial Nerve

41

Arteries of the forearm

Radial Artery
Ulnar artery

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Radial artery

More lateral branch of the brachial artery

43

Radial artery branches:

1. Recurrent- Runs proximally to the brachial profundus & takes part in the collateral circulation around the lateral aspect of the elbow
2. Superficial & deep palmar - which join w/ similar branches from the ulnar artery to form the superficial & deep palmar arches of the hand

44

Ulnar Artery

Medial branch of the brachial artery, deep to the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. and is accompanied by the ulnar nerve

45

Ulnar artery branches:

1. Anterior & posterior recurrent - which join the ulnar collaterals of the brachial & form the collateral circulation on the medial aspect of the elbow
2. Common interosseous- arises from the proximal part of the vessel. The common interosseous will divide into an anterior & posterior interosseous artery
3. Superficial & deep Palmar which help form the superficial & deep palmar arches

46

Distal or inferior Radioulnar joint Articulation:

Head of the ulna & ulnar notch of the radius

47

Distal or inferior Radioulnar joint classification:

Pivot or trochoid

48

Distal or inferior Radioulnar joint capsular ligament:

Encloses the joint but rather weak & may be deficient superiorly

49

Distal or inferior Radioulnar joint Ligaments:
Anterior and posterior transverse ligaments &
Articular disc (ligament)

- Anterior & posterior transverse ligaments serve to unite the distal end of the radius & ulna, strengthen the capsular ligament & prevent supination.
- Extrinsic & act like a rope

50

Articular disc (ligament)

- Small piece of fibrocartilage which attaches to the ulnar notch & the styloid process of the ulna. Helps to firmly unite the distal end of the 2 bones & is considered the chief uniting structure of the joint

51

Nerve supply of the anterior/ posterior transverse ligaments and the articular disc (ligament)

Radial

52

________ ______ unites the hand to the forearm

Radiocarpal joint

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Articulation of radiocarpal joint:

Distal end of the radius & the articular disc with the scaphoid, lunate & triquetral

54

classification of radiocarpal joint

Condyloid

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Capsular ligament of radiocarpal joint

rather thin & unremarkable

56

Ligaments of radiocarpal joint:

Dorsal & palmar radiocarpals
Palmar ulnocarpal
Ulnar & radial collaterals

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Dorsal & palmar radiocarpals:

- Attaches superiorly to the radius & inferiorly to the scaphoid & lunate carpal bones,
- Extrinsic & acts like ropes

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Palmar ulnocarpal

- attaches the ulna to the scaphoid and lunate
- Extrinsic & acts like a rope

59

Ulnar & radial collateral

- Attach from the styloid process of the ulna & radius to the carpal bones on their respective sides.
- Extrinsic & act like ropes

60

Nerve supply of radiocarpal joint:

Median, Radial, & ulnar