Quiz 1 / Exam 1 Flashcards Preview

Gross 1 > Quiz 1 / Exam 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz 1 / Exam 1 Deck (59):
1

Movement
Stability
Communication
Control of body openings & passage ways
Heat production are all functions of:

Skeletal Muscle

2

Basic structural unit of a muscle is the:

Muscle fiber (cell) aka myofibril

3

Muscle fibers are grouped into bundles known as:

Fasciculi

4

Muscle fibers & fasciculi are bound together by:

Connective tissue

5

What are the functions of connective investment of muscle?

- Connect muscle to bone or other structures
- Provides a route through which nerves & blood vessels reach the muscle fiber
- Provide a non-contractile framework which allows the contraction of a muscle fiber to be transmitted

6

What are the 3 layers of connective tissue?

- Endomysium
- Perimysium
Epimysium

7

Delicate connective tissue sheath which surrounds each individual muscle fiber and connects it to adjacent muscle fibers

Endomysium

8

More dense layer which surrounds each fasciculi and divides the muscle into a series of separate compartments

Perimysium

9

Dense layer of connective tissue which surrounds the entire muscle & separates the muscle from surrounding tissue, organs and other muscles.

Epimysium

10

The __________ is continuous with deep fascia in the area & will continue as the TENDON of the muscle

Epimysium

11

Muscle fibers are extremely long and ______________, with the nuclei arranged around the __________ of the fiber.

Multi-nucleated, periphery

12

The contractile unit of the muscle

Myofilaments

13

Each fiber is contained w/in a tough, specialized membrane known as the

Sarcolemma

14

Type of increase in the size of a muscle, which is due to an increase in the size of each individual muscle fiber.

Hypertrophy

15

Increase in the size of a muscle due to an actual increase in the number of muscle fibers.

Hyperplasia

16

Refers to the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber.

Sarcoplasm

17

Associated with higher levels of continuous metabolic activity

Type 1 muscle fibers

18

Aerobic Metabolism is associated with what muscle type?

Type 1 muscle fibers

19

Anaerobic metabolism is associated with what muscle type?

Type 2 muscle fibers

20

The cell membrane:

Sarcolemma

21

Elaborate, tubular network which functions to store & transport calcium ions to the myofibrils

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

22

Tubular invaginations of the sarcolemma which allow electrical impulses to enter the muscle fiber & make their way to the myofibrils

Transverse Tubules (T-system)

23

Functions of myoglobin

- Stores the needed oxygen that the fibers need to utilize for metabolism
- Has a greater affinity for oxygen than that of hemoglobin

24

Contractile apparatus of the muscle fiber

Myofibril

25

Myofibrils are formed from longitudinally oriented bundles of thick and thin filaments know as:

Myofilaments

26

Myofibrils are made of up:

I-bands
A-bands
H-bands
Z-lines

27

I-bands

Light areas

28

A-bands

Dark areas

29

H-bands

Light areas in the middle of each A-band

30

Z-lines

Thick dark line in the middle of each I-band

31

Each myofibril is composed of numerous units known as the __________, smallest functional unit of the muscle and runs from one Z-line to the next Z-line

Sarcomere

32

Contractile proteins consists of?

Actin and Myosin

33

Actin can be found primarily in the:

I-bands

34

Myosin can be primarily found in the:

A-bands

35

These two proteins interact with one another and thus create movement, a contraction

Actin and myosin

36

Act to inhibit the interaction of actin and myosin & thus prevent indiscriminate movement

Regulator proteins

37

Two most common regulatory proteins are?

Troponin and tropromyosin

38

Eliminates the inhibition caused by the regulatory proteins & thus allows muscle contraction to occur

Calcium

39

Nerve impulse from the _________ _______ stimulates the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum

Transverse Tubules

40

The released calcium binds with the troponin molecules on the _______

Actin filaments

41

True / False The binding of calcium with troponin changes the shape of the nearby tropomyosin molecule and exposing the myosin biding site on the actin molecule

True

42

_____ allows the system to operate, by allowing myosin to interact with actin

ATP

43

Muscle uses 2 general metabolic methods to provide ATP--- one works _______ and the other works ________

Aerobically and anaerobically

44

Aerobic pathway takes place in the?

Mitochondria

45

True/ False More efficient way to produce ATP in a muscle fiber

True

46

This pathway prefers fatty acids to produce ATP

Aerobic Pathway

47

Fatty acids are stored in the body's fat cells as __________ and released into the blood during exercise

Triglycerides

48

This pathway depends on 2 substances to produce ATP

Anaerobic pathway
- Creatine phosphate and glycogen

49

First substance used by the anaerobic pathway & allows the muscle to contract at once

Creatine phosphate

50

Substance in the anaerobic pathway which produces ATP by the process known as glycolysis

Glycogen

51

Glycogen is stored in _________ or ________ ____ and the pathway works quickly

Muscle fiber or liver cells

52

What happens during PHASE 1 of exercise:

Only last a few min. And creatine phosphate & glycogen are the primary fuel sources. 20% of the total glycogen that is stored in a muscle maybe utilized during this phase

53

What happens during PHASE 2:

Shift in metabolism to the more efficient aerobic metabolism and the use of fatty acids to produce ATP

54

What happens during PHASE 3

Occurs as exercise intensifies, will se the muscle fibers going back to anaerobic production of ATP and thus the utilization of the remaining stored glycogen. During this phase that lactic acid can accumulate within the fibers.

55

Method to increase red blood cell concentration is using a synthetic type of:

Erythropoietin (EPO)

56

EPO is naturally occurring hormone produced in the?

Kidneys

57

This hormone travels to the bone marrow to produce red blood cells

Erythropoietin (EPO)

58

Motor Nerves transmit_____ / ______impulses from the CNS to each individual muscle fiber, the result of which is a _____ response (contraction)

Efferent/ Motor, Motor

59

Sensory Nerve Fibers convey to the CNS ________/______ impulses which originate within the muscle as a result of a contraction.

Afferent/ sensory