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1

Among the cellular responses to injury we learned in lecture (atrophy, hyperplasia, etc), which one is never adaptive and is considered “pre-neoplastic”?

DYSPLASIA

dysplasia is a pre-cancerous pattern of growth - it never benefits the tissue in any way

2

What are the visual signs of cellular (coagulative) necrosis?

- Gray, firm mass of structures within the cell
- Coagulation of dead cells
- Acidosis - enzymes starting to break things down so structures might look swollen

3

What are some examples of when cellular (coagulative) necrosis might happen?

hypoxic injury, myocardial infarction (cardiac)

4

Latent period of disease process

time between the initial exposure/injury and the first manifestation of signs and symptoms

(also referred to as incubation period, or “sub-clinical stage”)

5

Prodromal period of disease process

particularly common for infectious diseases — this is the first onset of signs and symptoms (often non-specific)

6

Acute phase of disease process

the severity of signs and symptoms peak, and SPECIFIC signs and symptoms emerge

(example with jaundice being the specific symptom of hepatitis)

7

chronic stage of disease process

After acute phase, if there is no recovery, disease moves into chronic

what this looks like completely depends on the disease

might be remissions/outbreaks, or slow progression downwards as in with chronic kidney failure or chronic liver disease leading to cirrhosis

8

Unlike coagulative necrosis, apoptosis involves:

A.programmed cell death
B.cell shrinkage
C.the removal of cell debris by immune cells
D.all of the above

D. all of the above

9

Liquifactive necrosis occurs in:

A.Tissue with little to no connective tissue
B.Tissue with high amounts of surrounding fat deposits
C.Tissue with moderate amounts of connective tissue
D.As a result of apoptosis

A.Tissue with little to no connective tissue

10

Where does Liquifactive necrosis most commonly occur?

BRAIN and nervous system is the most common place b/c there’s almost no connective tissue there

11

Which of the following correctly describes metaplasia?

A.When the cells in a tissue bed increase in size
B.When the cells in a tissue bed increase in number
C.When the cell type of a tissue bed is replaced with less mature/differentiated cell type
D.When the cell type, cell density, and organization of a tissue bed becomes high irregular

C.When the cell type of a tissue bed is replaced with less mature/differentiated cell type

12

What is a free radical?

A.a molecule with an unpaired electron
B.any byproduct of metabolism
C.a molecule that is only produced under pathological conditions
D.None of the above

A. a molecule with an unpaired electron

13

Hydropic swelling is a sign of:

A.cell division
B.hypertrophy
C.cell injury or cell death
D.hyperplasia

C.cell injury or cell death

14

Hydropic swelling represents

the failure of the ability to keep out sodium - sodium leaks in, water follows, and the cell swells

15

Which one of the following changes in cell/tissue morphology and function is not considered "adaptive"?

A.Atrophy
B.Hypertrophy
C.Hyperplasia
D.Displasia

D.Displasia

16

Reactive Oxygen Species can damage cells by causing:

A.Lipid peroxidation
B.Disruption/damage to polypeptide chains
C.DNA damage
D.all of the above

D.all of the above

17

The most common cause of pathological atrophy is:

A.increased functional demand
B.starvation
C.emybrological development
D.decreased functional demand

D.decreased functional demand

18

Reactive oxygen species can be produced as a result of:

A.Normal aerobic metabolism
B.As a part of inflammation
C.Exposure to ionizing radiation
D.All of the above

D.All of the above

19

The most common cause of both hypertrophy and hyperplasia is increased functional demand. If that's true then why is it that increased functional demand can cause hypertrophy of cardiac muscle but never hyperplasia?

A.Cardiac muscle cells do not undergo the kind of increased functional demand that is needed to trigger hyperplasia
B.Cardiac muscle cells are incapable of cell division
C.The gap junctions in-between cardiac muscle cells interfere with hyperplasia
D.None of the above

B.Cardiac muscle cells are incapable of cell division

20

Symptom

a subjectively experienced manifestation

can only be reported by patient, it is not objectively observable

severity is also subjective (pain)

21

Signs

objectively observable - ex. rash, fever - measurable

22

Syndrome

a collection of signs and symptoms that are pretty stereotypical and tend to be commonly caused by a particular disease state

23

Hypertrophy

where the cell gets bigger without multiplying

24

Hyperplasia

cell number increases through cell division

25

An example of hypertrophy without hyperplasia

Muscles increasing from exercise

26

Extracellular fluid has 2 sub-compartments:

Intravascular (plasma)
Interstitial fluid (between the vasculature and the cells)

27

Composition of plasma is the same as interstitial space with the exception of

plasma proteins

28

Homeostasis

the condition of normal function of the body, represents the optimal set point or range of a variety of parameters (mostly of extracellular fluid)

29

2 most tightly regulated parameters (because of protein sensitivity):

1. Temperature
2. pH

30

Every enzyme in our body is a

protein