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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (309)
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1

Which of the following lipoproteins is responsible for delivering cholesterol to tissues?

A. Chylomicrons
B. VLDLs
C. LDLs
D. HDLs

C.LDLs

2

In addition to there being an optimal total cholesterol count, the goal is often to achieve the lowest possible _______ count and the highest possible _______ count

A. LDL///HDL
B. HDL///LDL
C. HDL///triglyceride
D. Triglyceride///LDL

A. LDL///HDL

3

Lipoproteins that contain the greatest proportion of ______ tend to be greatest in density.

A.Triglycerides
B.Phospholipids
C.Protein
D.Cholesterol

C.Protein

4

Cells of which organ are responsible for taking up the greatest amount of LDLs from circulation via the receptor-dependent mechanism/pathway.

A.Adipose tissue
B.Adrenal cortex
C.Liver
D.Ovaries/testes

C.Liver

5

Which of the following lipoproteins is responsible for delivering triglycerides to tissues?

A.Chylomicrons
B.VLDLs
C.LDLs
D.HDLs

A.Chylomicrons

6

During exercise which of the following factors contributes to the increase in perfusion of active muscle?

A. Local decrease in CO2 production by active muscle
B. Local decrease in O2 consumption by active muscle
C. Increased arteriolar resistance to flow (locally supplying muscle)
D. Relaxation of precapillary sphincters (locally supplying muscle)
E. All of the above

D. Relaxation of precapillary sphincters (locally supplying muscle)

7

Imagine that you are treating a burn patient and his blood work shows a decreased serum albumin level. The inflammation and exposed burn wounds have led to an excessive loss of albumin. You also notice that he is suffering from generalized pitting edema. Which of the following statements best explains the edema based on the above information regarding this patient?

A. Increased capillary blood pressure increases bulk flow out of capillaries and into interstitial space
B. Decreased capillary blood pressure increases bulk flow out of capillaries and into interstitial space
C. Increased interstitial hydrostatic pressure increases bulk flow out of capillaries and into interstitial space
D. Decreased plasma osmotic (colloid oncotic) pressure increases bulk flow out of capillaries and into interstitial space
E. Increased plasma osmotic (colloid oncotic) pressure increases bulk flow out of capillaries and into interstitial space

D. Decreased plasma osmotic (colloid oncotic) pressure increases bulk flow out of capillaries and into interstitial space

8

Why is the baroreflex considered only a short term strategy for regulating Mean Arterial Blood Pressure?

A.Because drops in blood pressure sensed by the aortic and carotid baroreceptors cannot lead to an increase in Angiotensin II which is necessary to increase plasma volume

B.Because the aortic and carotid baroreceptors adapt to sustained changes in blood pressure

C.Because renal baroreceptors are more efficient at adjusting heart rate in response to sustained changes in blood pressure.

D.All of the above

B. Because the aortic and carotid baroreceptors adapt to sustained changes in blood pressure

9

Endothelial-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) is

A.Adenosine
B.Nitric Acid
C.Norepinephrine
D.Endothelin

B.Nitric Acid

10

The direction of the action potential movement through the conduction system of the heart for each cardiac cycle is normally

A.SA node—bundle of His—Purkinje fibers—AV node

B.SA node—AV node—bundle of His—Purkinje fibers

C.AV node—SA node—bundle of His—Purkinje fibers

D.AV node—bundle of His—SA node—Purkinje fibers

E.Bundle of His—AV node—Purkinje fibers—SA node

B.SA node—AV node—bundle of His—Purkinje fibers

11

Which of the following would cause an increase in Mean Arterial Pressure (either directly or indirectly)?

A.Increased ventricular filling
B.Increased venous return
C.Increased heart rate
D.Increased arteriolar vasoconstriction
E.All of the above

E.All of the above

12

Which of the following is not a factor that either enhances or contributes to maintaining venous return of blood to the heart?

A.High compliance of the venous system
B.Skeletal muscle contraction
C.cardiac suction
D.Venous valves

A.High compliance of the venous system

13

Which two pressures promote the bulk flow movement of fluid into the capillary?

A.Plasma oncotic pressure and interstitial-fluid oncotic pressure
B.Capillary blood pressure and interstitial-fluid oncotic pressure
C.Interstitial-fluid hydrostatic pressure and interstitial-fluid oncotic pressure
D.Interstitial-fluid hydrostatic pressure and capillary blood pressure
E.Interstitial-fluid hydrostatic pressure and plasma oncotic pressure

E.Interstitial-fluid hydrostatic pressure and plasma oncotic pressure

14

Which of the following conditions can cause vasodilation of systemic arterioles?

A. High O2 concentrations
B. High pH
C. Low CO2 concentrations
D. High CO2 concentrations
E. All of the above

D.High CO2 concentrations

15

There are many factors that can damage the endothelial lining of blood vessels throughout the body including smoking, dislipidemia, uncontrolled diabetes, and hypertension. Patients with endothelial damage (and dysfunction) to the coronary arteries that perfuse the heart are at higher risk for cardiac ischemia (i.e. O2 deprivation). Why?

A. Because there is impaired endothelial sensitivity to local concentrations of O2, CO2, pH, and adenosine

B. Because there is impaired endothelial release of Nitric Oxide

C. Because local tissue perfusion is not being matched to metabolic need

D. All of the above

D.All of the above

16

TM is a 56 year old male who presents to your office for the first time. He tells you that his previous provider diagnosed him with aortic stenosis a few years ago. When you auscultate his chest, you hear a murmur during:

A. Diastole
B. Systole
C. In between S1 and S2
D. B & C

D. B & C

17

Mrs. M presents to your clinic symptomatic for left-sided heart failure (means the left ventricle is having trouble pumping blood). What symptoms might Mrs. M present with?

A. Edema in the lower extremities
B. SOB
C. Unsteady gait
D. None of the above

B. SOB

18

Which one of the following statements about stress is FALSE?

A. Exposure to intermittent stress is beneficial for overall health
B. Stress can come in many forms including the physiological and psychosocial
C. Exposure to intermittent stress is harmful for overall health
D. Adaptation to one form of stress can increase one's capacity to tolerate other forms of stress.

C. Exposure to intermittent stress is harmful for overall health

19

In which of the following stages of the General Adaptation Syndrome does the degree of activation of the stress response decline despite the presence of the stressful stimulus?

A.Alarm
B.Resistance
C.Exhaustion
D.None of the above

B.Resistance

20

Activation of the amygdala suggests:

A.an intensely pleasurable experience
B.a mildly pleasurable experience
C.an intensely frightening experience
D.a mildly uncomfortable experience

C.an intensely frightening experience

21

In what part of the brain are real or perceived stressors interpreted/evaluated?

A.Prefrontal cortex
B.olfactory bulb
C.hippocampus
D.hypothalamus

A.Prefrontal cortex

22

Which structure within the limbic system of the brain represents the "link" between your "thinking and feeling brain" and stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal cortex?

A.Prefrontal cortex
B.olfactory bulb
C.hippocampus
D.hypothalamus

D.hypothalamus

23

Parasympathetic postganglionic fibers

A. Are on average much longer in length than sympathetic postganglionic fibers
B. Arise from the ganglion chain located along either side of the spinal cord
C. Branch out from the celiac or hypogastric gangliaAre on average much longer in length than sympathetic postganglionic fibers
D. Are cholinergic
E. Secrete norepinephrineAre on average much longer in length than sympathetic postganglionic fibers

D. Are cholinergic

24

Nicotinic Acetylcholine receptors

A. Respond to acetylcholine released from both sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic fibers
B. Are found primarily in the heart
C. Bind with norepiniphrine released from sympathetic preganglionic receptors
D. Bind with acetylcholine released from parasympathetic postganglionic fibers.

A. Respond to acetylcholine released from both sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic fibers

25

Disruption of which one of the following cranial nerves will most effect parasympathetic control over visceral function?

A.IX
B.VII
C.X
D.II

C.X

26

Epinephrine is a ____________ hormone released from the ___________.

A.Parasympathetic, adrenal medulla
B.Sympathetic, adrenal cortex
C.Sympathetic, adrenal medulla
D.Parasympathetic, adrenal cortex

C.Sympathetic, adrenal medulla

27

Which of the following synapses involves muscarinic Acetylcholine receptors?

A.Synapses in the sympathetic chain ganglion
B.The synapse between the axon terminals of the vagus nerve and the heart
C.Synapses in the hypogastric plexus
D.The synapses between parasympathetic preganglionic neurons and postganglionic neurons

B. The synapse between the axon terminals of the vagus nerve and the heart

28

What is a lipoprotein?

Lipoproteins are special fat-carrying proteins

29

What are the 5 types of lipoproteins and how are they classified?

1) Chylomicrons
2) Very-low density lipoproteins (VLDL)
3) Intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL)
4) Low-density lipoproteins (LDL)
5) High-density lipoproteins (HDL)

classified by density

30

What is an LDL? What purpose does it serve?

LDL is a type of lipoprotein that is 50% cholesterol. Their purpose is to circulate in your bloodstream and deliver cholesterol to your cells/tissues.