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1

Which of the following factors would decrease GFR?

A.A fall in plasma protein concentration (which decreases plasma oncotic pressure).

B.An obstruction such as a kidney stone in the tubular system (which increases Bowman's capsule hydrostatic pressure).

C.Vasodilation of the afferent arterioles (which increases capillary blood pressure).

D.An increase in renal blood flow (which increases capillary blood pressure).

B.An obstruction such as a kidney stone in the tubular system (which increases Bowman's capsule hydrostatic pressure).

2

In the formation of urine, ___________ is a completely passive and non-selective process while _________ is selective and often requires the expenditure of energy.

A. Glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption and secretion
B.Tubular reabsorption and secretion, Glomerular filtration
C.Sodium reabsorption, water reabsorption
D.Glucose reabsorption, sodium reabsorption

A. Glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption and secretion

3

When arterial blood pressure declines below normal, which of the following compensatory changes in renal function occur as a result of sympathetic nervous system activation?

A.Afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction
B.Afferent arteriolar vasodilation
C.Decreased Renin secretion
D.Decreased ADH secretion
E.None of the above

A.Afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction

4

Below is a listing of nephron components and associated structures:

1. Descending limb of loop of Henle
2. Bowman's capsule
3. Collecting duct
4. Ascending limb of loop of Henle
5. Distal tubule
6. Proximal tubule

Indicate the correct flow of fluid through these structures:

2, 6, 1, 4, 5, 3

5

Which of the following statements about juxtamedullary nephrons is incorrect?

A.The glomeruli lie in the renal medulla.
B.Are important in the ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine.
C.The Loops of Henle span the entire depth of the renal medulla.
D.The vascular component contains a vasa recta.
E.Are not the predominant type of nephron found in human kidney

A.The glomeruli lie in the renal medulla.

6

Which of your respiratory brain regions is NOT active during resting breathing?

Ventral respiratory group

7

The purpose of the peripheral chemoreceptors is to sense changes in:

A.Plasma pH
B.PO2 of plasma
C.PCO2 of plasma
D.Both (a) and (b)

D.Both (a) and (b)

8

Kussmal breathing is characterized by very deep and rapid respirations and is often seen with severe diabetic acidosis. In a patient experiencing diabetic acidosis, his/her _______ sense the fall in plasma pH and excites the medullary respiratory center to initiate Kussmal breathing which will, in turn, ________ to brings plasma pH back to normal.

A.Peripheral Chemoreceptors, lowers plasma PCO2
B.Central Chemoreceptors, lowers plasma PCO2
C.Central Chemoreceptors, elevates plasma PCO2
D.Peripheral Chemoreceptors, elevates plasma PCO2

A.Peripheral Chemoreceptors, lowers plasma PCO2

9

Which of your respiratory brain regions (listed below) is NOT active during resting breathing?

A.Dorsal respiratory group
B.Ventral respiratory group
C.Pre-Botzinger complex
D.Pneumotaxic center

B.Ventral respiratory group

10

Sarah has discovered a neat trick. She first holds her breath for as long as she can and takes note of that time. Next, she begins to breathe very rapidly with exaggerated exhalations for 30 seconds (i.e. hyperventilation). Finally, she holds her breath again for as long as she can and notices that she is able to hold her breath for nearly twice as long the first time. Why was Sarah was able to hold her breath longer the second time?

By hyperventilating, Sarah was able to lower her PCO2. This way when she held her breath the second time it took longer for her PCO2 to climb high enough to stimulate her chemoreceptors and force her to breath.

11

In a healthy individual which of the following parameters is most important in regulating and maintaining normal respiration?

A.Plasma PO2
B.Plasma pH
C.Plasma PCO2
D.% Hb saturation

C.Plasma PCO2

12

Which of the following would decrease the amount of gas diffusing from alveoli into the pulmonary capillary?

A.An increase in the thickness of the dissusion barrier
B.An increase in surface area available for diffusion
C.An increase in the partial pressure gradient
D.An increase in alveolar PO2
E.All of the above

A.An increase in the thickness of the dissusion barrier

13

Which of the following would not result in lower oxygen saturation of hemoglobin?

A.A local increase in acidity
B.A local increase in temperature
C.A local increase in PO2
D.A local increase in PCO2

C.A local increase in PO2

14

Normally, systemic venous PO2 is ________ alveolar PO2, and systemic venous PCO2 is ________ alveolar PCO2.

A.Greater than /// less than
B.Less than /// equal to
C.Equal to /// greater than
D.Less than /// greater than
E.equal to /// less than

D.Less than /// greater than

15

The majority of CO2 in blood is transported (i.e. carried in blood) in which form?

As bicarbonate

16

How is the majority of O2 carried by the blood stream?

A.Chemically bound to the heme groups on hemoglobin
B.Physically dissolved in plasma
C.In the form of bicarbonate
D.Chemically bound to the globin groups on hemoglobin

A.Chemically bound to the heme groups on hemoglobin

17

Atmospheric air is composed mostly of:

A.Oxygen
B.Carbondioxide
C.Nitrogen
D.Water vapor

C.Nitrogen

18

Select the incorrect statement about hemoglobin.

A.Its CO2 binding site is located at each heme group
B.It is located inside the red blood cell
C.Its globin portion is a polypeptide
D.It combines with oxygen at the lungs
E.It contains iron

A.Its CO2 binding site is located at each heme group

19

The purpose of pulmonary surfactant is to:

A.Protect the alveoli from inhaled dust or debris
B.Remove water vapor in the alveoli
C.Prevent alveolar collapse
D.Increase the PCO2 in the alveoli

C.Prevent alveolar collapse

20

Which of the following measures would apply to a patient with anemia (decreased red blood cell count – RBC count). Let’s say this person’s disease is severe enough that her RBC count is 10% less than normal?

A.arterial PO2 = 90mmHg
B.venous PCO2 = 30 mmHg
C.venous PO2 = 30 mmHg
D.arterial PO2 = 100mmHg

D.arterial PO2 = 100mmHg

21

James is on a stationary bike at the gym. Imagine you were measuring the degree of oxygen extraction by all tissues in his body (i.e. how much O2 is taken out of blood by any tissue). You find that of all the tissue types in James’ body his oxygen extraction is highest in his quadricep muscles. Which of the following factors explains this finding?

A.The local temperture is higher in his quadricep muscle
B.The local pH is lower in his quadricep muscle
C.The local CO2 is higher in his quadricep muscle
D.All of the above

D.All of the above

22

Which of the following will increase a person's risk for Heart Failure?

A.A previous myocardial infarction
B.Left ventricular hypertrophy
C.Congenital or acquired defects in the cardiac conduction system
D.All of the above

D.All of the above

23

With chronic heart failure the compensatory activation of the sympathetic nervous system causes increased heart rate, plasma volume expansion, and increased arterial blood pressure. How does this cause disease progression?

A.By increasing cardiac preload
B.By increasing afterload
C.By increasing cardiac O2 demands
D.All of the above

D.All of the above

24

Which of the following measures total cardiac function and becomes inadequate with heart failure?

A.Heart Rate
B.Stroke Volume
C.Cardiac Output
D.Afterload

C.Cardiac Output

25

Left sided heart failure can directly lead to:

A.Dependent edema of the extremities
B.Liver congestion
C.GI distress
D.Pulmonary edema

D.Pulmonary edema

26

Which of the following drug types target the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system in the treatment of heart failure?

A.ACE-inhibitors
B.ARBs
C.Aldosterone antagonists
D.All of the above

D.All of the above

27

The progressive decline in cardiac output seen with chronic heart failure is a direct consequence of:

A.Increased production of Aldosterone
B.Peripheral vasocontriction
C.Cardiac remodeling
D.Plasma volume expansion

C.Cardiac remodeling

28

What is the primary rationale for the use of Beta Blockers to treat heart failure?

A.To reduce cardiac output
B.To reduce cardiac O2 demands
C.To prevent plasma volume expansion
D.To reduce cardiac preload

B.To reduce cardiac O2 demands

29

Right-sided heart failure can directly lead to:

A.decreased appetite and weight loss
B.Cough with frothy sputum
C.Activity intolerance related to decreased cardiac output
D.Pulmonary congestion

A.decreased appetite and weight loss

30

What is the primary rationale for the use of diuretics in the treatment of heart failure?

A.To reduce cardiac preload
B.To enhance cardiac output
C.To prevent cardaic remodeling
D.All of the above

A.To reduce cardiac preload