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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (21)
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1

Health promotion

Process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health

2

Risk behaviors

Behaviors that increase the probability that a negative outcome will occur

3

Risk factors

Any factors that increase the probability that a negative outcome will occur

4

Protective factors

Any factors that decrease the probability that a negative outcome will occur

5

Vulnerable population

Population w/ high lvl of risk factors and/or low level of protective factors

6

Disease

Abnormalities in the structure and function of organs and body systems, as defined by biomedicine

7

Illness

patient's subjective experience of physical or mental states, whether based on some underlying disease pathology or not
-can be socially constructed and highly controversial

8

Medicalization**

Process by which nonmedical problems become defined and treated as medical problems, usually in terms of illness or disorders
Ie. Anxiety, menopause, infertility, obesity

9

Core areas of PH

Epi
Biostats
Health policy
Env. Health
Social and behavioral science

10

Themes of behavioral and social sciences

-theory driven research
-lifespan perspective
-focus on social and biological context of behavior
-emphasis on individual variation

11

"Behavioral" refers to

-overt actions
-underlying psychological processes (cognition, emotion, temperament, and motivation)
-biobehavioral interactions

12

"Social" refers to

-sociocultural, socioeconomic, and sociodemographic status
-lvls of social context from small groups to complex cultural systems

13

Ways of understanding how things work

Theory (Shoemaker)
-expresses a relationship between 2 variables

14

Hypothesis

Testable statement about the relationship bw variables

15

Roots of SBS theories

-psychology
-sociology
-cultural anthropology
-ecology

16

Reciprocal determinism means:

There is not just a one-way linear relationship

17

Social ecology**

Ecology (study of relationships between organisms and their environments) + Social influences

18

Core principles of social ecology

1) physical, mental, and social well-being are influenced by env. Factors
2) personal characteristics and env. Conditions often have interactive as well as direct effects on well-being
3) degree of FIT bw people's biological, behavioral, and socio-cultural needs and env. Resources available to them is a key determinant of well-being
4) certain behaviors and roles in community setting exert PIVOTAL INFLUENCE on well-being
5) JOINT INFLUENCE of multiple setting and life domains on persons' health over extended periods
6) INTERDISCIPLINARY research linking perspectives of medicine, PH, behavioral/social sciences is essential for developing health promotion programs

19

Difficulties of social ecological perspective

-don't give specific guidance on variables within domains that may be important
-specific to certain health risks and behaviors

20

Tuskegee study led to what laws

National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research

National Research Act

IRBs

21

Belmont Report -->

3 fundamental ethical principles for using any humans for research:
-Report for persons
-beneficence
-justice