Exam #1: Introduction to the Brainstem Flashcards Preview

Neuroanatomy > Exam #1: Introduction to the Brainstem > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam #1: Introduction to the Brainstem Deck (28):
1

What are the three structures of the brainstem?

1) Midbrain
2) Pons
3) Medulla

2

Where is the cerebral aqueduct in relation to the brainstem?

Between the tectum & tegmentum of the midbrain

3

What is the anterior median fissure?

Ventral fissure of the brainstem

4

What is the posterior median sulcus?

Dorsal sulcus of the braimstem

5

Where is the 4th ventricle in relation to the brainstem?

Posterior to the pons i.e. rostral medulla

6

What is the rule of four?

12 Cranial Nerves
3 Parts of the brainstem

= 4 CN per section of the brainstem

7

Where do CN I & II come from? What about III & IV?

- Brain itself, NOT the brainstem
- III= ventral midbrain
- IV= dorsal midbrain

8

Where do CN V, VI, VII, & VIII origiante?

Pontomedullary junction

9

Where do CN IX, X, XI, & XII originate?

Brainstem

10

What is the infandibulum? Where is it located? What kind of symptoms are seen with a tumor of the infandibulum?

Pituitary stalk--the optic chiasm is directly over

Tumor= changes in vision

11

What CN originates inferior to the Corpora Quadrigemini?

CN IV

12

What is the rhomboid fossa? What is contained in the Rhomboid fossa?

4th ventricle
Facial colliculus--CN VII

13

What is the hypoglossal trigone?

This is where the hypoglossal nerve comes off the brainstem; the hypoglossal nucleus is deep to the trigone

14

What is the vagal trigone?

This is where the vagus nerve comes off the brainstem; the vagal nucleus is deep to the trigone

15

What are the Gracile Tubercle & Cuneate Tubercle?

Swelling in the medulla from the Facisuclus Gracilis (medial) & Fasiculis Cuneatus (lateral)

16

What is the sulcus limitans?

In the floor of the fourth ventricle, the sulcus limitans separates the cranial nerve motor nuclei (medial) from the sensory nuclei (lateral)
- Between= both

*Separates midline structure from lateral structures

17

What is the open medulla?

Where the 4th ventricle becomes visible on cross-section in the rostal medulla/ near the ponto-medullary junction

18

What is the function of the basilar pons?

Motor function

19

What is the function of the tegmentum?

Multisynaptic network of neurons that is involved in many unconscious homeostatic and reflexive pathways.

20

What is the function of the tectum?

Corpora Quadragemi
Superior= auditory
Inferior= hearing

21

What is the hallmark for the medulla? What tells you if you're rostral or caudal?

Inferior olivary nucleus= hallmark for the medulla

*Open vs. closed i.e. 4th ventricle tells you if you're rostral or caudal

22

What is the inferior cerebellar peduncle?

Connects the spinal cord and medulla oblongata with the cerebellum

23

What is the middle cerebellar peduncle?

Connect the cerebellum to the pons

24

What is the superior cerebellar peduncle?

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25

What is the periaqueductal gray? What is the function?

Gray matter that surrounds the cerebral aqueduct in the midbrain; functions to transmit pain signals

26

What are the four CN that are both motor & sensory?

CN V
CN VII
CN IX (Glossopharyngeal)
XN X (Vagus)

27

Describe the CN orientation around the olive.

Medial= CN XII
Lateal= CN IX, X, XI

28

Where is the nucleus located for CN XI?

In the spinal cord--"Spinal Accessory"