Exam #2: Cerebellum Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #2: Cerebellum Deck (45):
1

How do you know the difference between tremor that is Basal Ganglia in origin or Cerebellum in origin?

Basal Ganglia= tremor AT REST

Cerebellum= tremor WITH MOVEMENT

2

What is the function of the cerebellum?

1) Coordination of motor movement
2) Procedural memory

3

Specifically, what are the aspects of motor functions that are coordinated by the cerebellum?

- Velocity
- Force
- Duration
- Timing
- Trajectory

4

What is the structure that goes between the two cerebellar hemispheres?

Vermis

5

What is the floculaonodular lobe?

This is a bilateral structure on the ventral surface of the cerebellum & vermis that connects to the vestibular system
- Flocculus= cerebellum
- Nodulus= vermis

6

What is the function of the floculonodular lobe?

Balance

****Note that this is also called the vestibulocerebellar lobe

7

What is the spinocerebellum?

This is the "paravermal" area that receives input from the spinal cord-- maintains muscle tone & adjusts movements of the axial trunk/ proximal limbs

*****"Reciprocally connected to the spinal cord"

8

What is the cerebrocerebellum?

Lateral areas of the cerebellum that receives information from the cerebral cortex; functions in precise control of executed movements

*****"Reciprocally connected to the cerebral cortex"

9

How is the "homoculus" of the cerebellum organized?

There are 2x homunculi:
1) Anterior= head is posterior & feet are anterior
- ONE homunculus

2) Posterior= head is anterior & LE are posterior
- TWO homunculi

****Both are oriented in a medial to lateral fashion; axial & proximal limb medial; distal limbs lateral

10

Name the deep cerebellar nuclei from medial to lateral.

- Fastigial nucleus (midline)
- Globose nucleus
- Emboliform nucleus
- Dentate nucleus

****Note that these are listed from medial to lateral

11

What are the interposed nuclei?

Globose & emboliform nuceli together

12

What cerebellar cortical zone is associated with the spinocerebellar tract?

Vermis
Paravermal

13

What nuclei are associated with the spinocerebellar tract?

Fastigial nuclei
Interposed nuceli

14

What cerebellar cortical zone is associated with the cerebrocerebellar tract?

Hemispheric (cerebellar)

15

What nuclei are associated with the cerebrocerebellar tract?

Dentate nuclei

16

What cerebellar cortical zone is associated with the vestibulocerebellar tract?

Flocculonodular lobe

17

What nuclei are associated with the vestibulocerebellar tract?

Vestibular nuceli

*****I.e. Floculonodular lobe DOES NOT synapse with the deep cerebellar nuclei

18

What information does the cerebellum need to function? Where does the cerebellum receive that information from?

- Cerebral cortex needs to send the "instructions" to the cerebellum via the "CORTICOPONTO-CEREBELLAR" tract

- Proprioceptive information about the "current state" of the body from the "SPINOCEREBELLAR TRACT"

- Cerebellum needs to send information BACK to the cortex; occurs via the "DENTORUBROTHALAMIC" tract

19

What is the function of the dentorubrothalamic tract?

Sends information back up to the thalamus after the execution of an action

20

What tract is associated with the inferior peduncle?

Spinocerebellar

*Current state of the body

21

What tract is associated with the middle peduncle?

Corticoponto-cerebellar

*Instructions from the cortex

22

What tract is associated with the superior peduncle?

Dentorubrothalamic

*Information from the cerebellum back to the cortex

23

What are the two basic functions of the vestibulocerebellum?

1) Balance & equilibrium
2) Coordination of eye & head movements

24

Where does the input of the vestibulocerebellum come from?

Vestibular system

*Inferior Olivary Nucleus

25

Where does the vestibulocerebellum send output to?

1) Vestibular nuclei
2) Vestibulospinal tracts
3) Medial longitudinal fasiculus

26

What cranial nerves does the Medial Longitudinal Fasciulus connect?

CN:

- III
- IV
- VI

27

What are the two major functions of the spinocerebellum?

1) Adjust movement based on proprioception
2) Posture & muscle tone

28

Where does the input to the spinocerebellum come from?

- Dorsal & ventral spinocerebellar tracts
- Cuneocerebellar tract
- Trigeminocerebellar tract

29

What is the output of the spinocerebellum?

- Vestibulospinal tract
- Reticulospinal tract

30

What are the general functions of the cerebrocerebellum?

1) Preparation
2) Fine coordination of motor commands w/ sensory input--especially the arm & hand

31

Where does the input to the cerebrocerebellum come from?

- Corticopontocerebellar tract
- Olivocerebellar tract

32

What is the output of the cerebrocerebellum?

- Dentorubrothalamic tract
- Rubrospinal tract

33

What are the three cortical layers of the cerebellum?

- Molcular
- Purkinje
- Granular

34

Draw the schematic of the cerebellar layers.

N/A

35

What is the function of the inferior olivary nucleus?

Procedural learning
- Reinforcing motor skills
- Practice makes perfect

36

What is the Cortico-olivocerebellar pathway?

Input from the inferior olivary nucleus to ?????

37

What aspects of the basal ganglia and cerebellum are alike?

1) Both influence motor movement
2) Both modifty or adjust motor commands
3) NO PARALYSIS W? LESION

38

Generally, how do the Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum differ?

Basal Ganglia= Permissive

Cerebellum= Execution

39

Define ataxia.

Lack of coordination of movement

40

Define dysmetria.

Individual that is unable to estimate the distance between the moving body part & target

****Also called "past-pointing"

41

Define dysdiadochokinesia.

Inability to carry out rapid alternating movements

42

Define nystagmus.

Rhythmic oscillation of one or both eyes

43

In patients with a cerebellar stroke, which side of the body will symptoms manifest? How does this differ from other brain lesions?

IPSILATERAL

44

What are the manifestations of a cerebellar infarct?

Ataxia
Dysmetria (past-pointing) of limb
Ocular dysfunction/ nystagmus/ diplopia
Vertigo

45

What artery is typically occluded in cases of a cerebellar infarct?

PICA (Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery)