Exam #2: Cranial Nerves V Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #2: Cranial Nerves V Deck (73):
1

What is the functional component of the cochlear nerve?

SSA (Special Somatic Afferent)--hearing

2

Where are the cell bodies of the 1st order neurons of the auditory pathway located?

Cochlear/ Spiral Ganglion

3

Where do the dendrites of the cochlear ganglion terminate?

Receptor hair cells of the Organ of Corti

4

Where do the axons of the cochlear ganglion enter the brain? What happens here?

Pons--axons bifurcate & go to either:
1) Dorsal cochlear nucleus
2) Ventral cochlear nucleus

5

Where are the second order neurons of the auditory pathway located?

1) Dorsal cochlear nucleus
2) Ventral cochlear nucleus

BOTH of which are in the Pons

6

What do the axons of the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus form? Where do these axons project?

Axons of the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus form the "Ventral Acoustic Stria" or "Trapezoid Body." These axons go to:
1) Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body
2) Superior Olivary Nucleus

Others ascend in the lateral lemniscus (LL) & terminate in:
Nucleus of the LL to INFERIOR COLLICULUS

7

What do the axons of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus form? Where do these axons project?

Axons of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus form the "Dorsal Acoustic Stria" that ascend the Lateral Lemniscus (LL) & terminate in the INFERIOR COLLICULUS

8

What auditory nucleus sends projections to the superior olivary nucleus?

Ventral Cochlear Nucleus

9

What is the function of the superior olivary nucleus in regards to hearing?

Localization of sound

10

What is the main pathway of hearing after BOTH the Ventral & Dorsal Cochlear Nuclei?

Axons synapse on the Lateral Lemniscus, which projects to the inferior colliculus of the midbrain

11

What is the function of the inferior colliculus in regards to hearing?

This is the relay nucleus for hearing in the midbrain

12

Where does the inferior colliculus project?

Medial Geniculate Nucleus (MGN) of the Thalamus

13

What is the function of the MGN?

Processing of sound INTENSITY & FREQUENCY

14

Where does the MGN project?

Auditory cortex via the "auditory radiation"

15

What Brodmann's areas comprise the primary auditory cortex?

41 & 42

16

What is the function of the primary auditory cortex in hearing?

- Localization of sound
- Detecting alterations of the pattern of sound

17

Where else does the MGN project besides the primary auditory cortex? What is the function of these projections?

Secondary cortical areas, which is important for interpretation of:
- Sound
- Voice
- Language
- Music

18

What are the 3rd order neurons of the auditory pathway?

Superior olivary nucleus

19

Where is the sensory information to the Superior Olivary Nucleus coming from?

BOTH ears

20

What is the sound attenuation reflex?

Protective reflex that causes contraction of the tensor tympani & stapedius, dampening auditory input

21

Outline the neuronal pathway of the sound attenuation reflex.

1) Loud sound at hair cells (organ or corti)
2) Transduction down dendrites of chochlear ganglia
3) Axons of cochlear ganglia project to the ventral cochlear nucleus
4) Ventral cochlear nucleus projects to the superior olivary nucleus
5) Superior olivary nucleus projects onto BOTH the TRIGEMINAL & FACAL NUCLEI

22

What muscle is innervated by the trigeminal nerve in the sound attenuation reflex?

Tensor tympani

23

What muscle is innervated by the facial nerve in the sound attenuation reflex?

Stapedius

24

What is the functional component of the vestibular nerve?

SSA (Special Somatic Afferent)--Equilibrium

25

What ganglia contains the first order neurons of the vestibular pathway?

Vestibular ganglia or "Scarpa's Ganglia"

26

Where are the dendrites of the vestibular ganglia?

1) Hair cells of the maculae or the utricle & saccule
2) Cristae of the semicircular canal ampullae

27

Where do the axons of the vestibular ganglia project?

- Pons, where they bifurcate & synapse with:
1) Vestibular nuclei
2) Inferior cerebellar peduncle, where they end in the flocculonodular lobe of the cerebellum

28

What is the flocculonodular lobe of the cerebellum? Why is this important?

This is the region of the cerebellum that coordinates head & eye movement

*****This connection makes the vestibular nerve the ONLY nerve to have a direct connection to the cerebellum

29

Where are the second order cell bodies of the vestibular pathway located?

Vestibular nuclei

30

Where do the axons of the vestibular nuclei project?

- These axons join the Medial Longitudinal Fasiculus (MLF)_ to project to the:
1) Extraocular muscle nuclei
2) Reticular formation
3) Cervical spinal cord
- Other axons terminate in the cerebellum & thalamus

*****Note that the thalamus contains the 3rd order neurons

31

Where are the cell bodies of the third order neurons of the vestibular pathway located?

VPL & VPI nuclei of the Thalamus

32

Where do the third order neurons of the vestibular pathway project?

Primary vestibular cortex

33

What Broadmann's area is the Primary Vestibular Cortex?

3a

*****Note that this is the medial surface of the postcentral gyrus

34

What are the functional components of the glossopharyngeal nerve?

GVA (General Visceral Afferent)
SVA (Special Visceral Afferent)
GVE (General Visceral Efferent)
SVE (Special Visceral Efferent)
GSA (General Somatic Afferent)

35

What are the GVA inputs carried by the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)?

- Pharyngeal tube
- Palatine tonsils, fauces
- Pharynx
- Carotid sinus (baroreceptor)

36

What is the SVA component of the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)?

Taste from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue

37

What is the GVE component of the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)?

PNS to the:
1) Parotid gland
2) Minor salivary glands of the tongue & pharynx

38

What is the SVE component of the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)?

Skeletal motor innervation of the stylopharyngeus muscle

39

What is the GSA component of the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)?

Sensation from the:
1) Ear
2) Ear canal
3) Posterior 1/3 of the tongue

40

What are the two sensory ganglia associated with the glossopharyngeal muscle?

Superior & inferior ganglia of the glossopharyngeal nerve

41

Where do the axons of the superior ganglia of the glossopharyngeal nerve project?

Spinal V Nucleus (via the Spinal V tract)

*****This ganglia is involved in NOCICEPTION

42

Where do the axons of the inferior ganglia of the glossopharyngeal nerve project?

Solitary nucleus via the solitary tract

43

What PNS ganglia is associated with the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)?

Otic ganglia

44

What does the Otic ganglion contain?

POST-synaptic PNS fibers to the parotid gland

45

What are the three nuclei associated with the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)?

1) Inferior salivatory nucleus
2) Nucleus ambiguous
3) Solitary nucleus

46

What does the inferior salivatory nucleus contain?

Cell bodies of PRE-synaptic PNS neurons that synapse with the otic ganglion

47

What does the nucleus ambiguious contain? What important function is this nuclei involved in?

Cell bodies of motor neurons to the stylopharyngeus muscle

*****Swallowing

48

What axons does the solitary nucleus receive?

Axons of sensory (i.e. both GVA & SVA) fibers

49

What is Frey's Syndrome?

This is someone that sweats instead of salivating
- Caused by damage to POST-synaptic PNS glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) nerves that sprout, regeneration, and get "lost"
- Innervate sweat glands instead of salivary

****Can be caused by parotid reconstruction surgery

50

What are the characteristic deficits seen with a lesion to the glossopharyngeal nerve?

1) Loss of taste from posterior 1/3 of tongue
2) Decreased salivation
3) Diminished visceral sensation
4) Loss of gag reflex
5) Loss of carotid sinus reflex

51

What are the five functional components of the vagus nerve?

GVA (General Visceral Afferent)
SVA (Special Visceral Afferent)
GVE (General Visceral Efferent)
SVE (Special Visceral Efferent)
GSA (General Somatic Afferent)

52

What are the GVE functions of the vagus nerve (CN X)?

PNS to thorax & abdomen

53

What are the SVE functions of the vagus nerve (CN X)?

Skeletal motor to pharyngeal & laryngeal skeletal muscles

54

What are the SVA functions of the vagus nerve (CN X)?

Taste from the epiglottis, soft palate, & upper pharynx

55

What are the GSA functions of the vagus nerve (CN X)?

Sensation from the outer ear, external auditory meatus, & posterior 1/3 of the dura

56

What are the GVA functions of the vagus nerve (CN X)?

Sensation from the mucous membrane of the soft palate, pharynx, esophagus, larynx, trachea, carotid body

57

What nuclei are associated with the vagus nerve?

1) Dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus
2) Nucleus ambiguus
3) Solitary nucleus

58

What is associated with the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus?

PNS
Pregnanglionic PNS neurons

59

WHat is associated with the nucleus amgibuus of the vagus nerve?

Skeletal motor
Skeletal muscles

60

What is associated with the solitary nucleus of the vagus?

Receives taste & visceral sensory neurons

61

What are the three ganglia associated with the vagus nerve?

1) Superuir ganglia
2) Inferior (nodose) ganglia
3) PNS

62

What are the characteristic deficits seen with a lesion to the glossopharyngeal nerve?

1) Loss of taste from posterior 1/3 of tongue
2) Decreased salivation
3) Diminished visceral sensation
4) Loss of gag reflex
5) Loss of carotid sinus reflex

63

What are the five functional components of the vagus nerve?

GVA (General Visceral Afferent)
SVA (Special Visceral Afferent)
GVE (General Visceral Efferent)
SVE (Special Visceral Efferent)
GSA (General Somatic Afferent)

64

What are the GVE functions of the vagus nerve (CN X)?

PNS to thorax & abdomen

65

What are the SVE functions of the vagus nerve (CN X)?

Skeletal motor to pharyngeal & laryngeal skeletal muscles

66

What are the SVA functions of the vagus nerve (CN X)?

Taste from the epiglottis, soft palate, & upper pharynx

67

What are the GSA functions of the vagus nerve (CN X)?

Sensation from the outer ear, external auditory meatus, & posterior 1/3 of the dura

68

What are the GVA functions of the vagus nerve (CN X)?

Sensation from the mucous membrane of the soft palate, pharynx, esophagus, larynx, trachea, carotid body

69

What nuclei are associated with the vagus nerve?

1) Dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus
2) Nucleus ambiguus
3) Solitary nucleus

70

What is associated with the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus?

PNS
Pregnanglionic PNS neurons

71

WHat is associated with the nucleus amgibuus of the vagus nerve?

Skeletal motor
Skeletal muscles

72

What is associated with the solitary nucleus of the vagus?

Receives taste & visceral sensory neurons

73

What are the three ganglia associated with the vagus nerve?

1) Superuir ganglia
2) Inferior (nodose) ganglia
3) PNS