Exam #3: Cerebral Cortex Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #3: Cerebral Cortex Deck (52):
1

What part of the cerebral cortex is the "new cortex?"

Neocortex

2

What part of the cerebral cortex is the " ancient cortex?"

Allocortex

3

What structures are part of the allocortex? How many layers are there in the allocortex?

Hippocampus= 3 layers
Paleocortex
Mesocortex

4

What is the paleocortex? How many layers are there in the paleocortex?

Primary & secondary olfactory cortex

*****3-5

5

What is the mesocortex? How many layers are there in the mesocortex?

Cingulate gyrus
Insular cortex

****3-6

6

How do our brains compare to chimps?

- Much more neocortex in humans

****Roughly equal size of primary areas (visual, motor, sensory...etc. but LARGER ASSOCIATION areas that integrate information between the primary areas

7

How does the layering of the precentral gyrus change as you go posterior into the postcentral gyrus?

- Precentral gyrus/ motor cortex= agranular & thicker
- Less cortical thickness in the sulcus
- Postcentral gyrus/ sensory cortex= granular & less thick

8

What is the isocortex?

Same thing as neocortex

9

What is the difference between homo-typical & hetero-typical cortex?

Homotypical= having the same architecture/ layering
- Association areas

Heterotypical= different architecture
- Motor cortex
- Sensory cortex

10

What is the difference between granular & agranular? What region is agranular? What region is granular?

Granular= speckled & "salt and pepper" appearance
- Primary sensory cortex

Agranular= smoother appearance
- Primary motor cortex

11

How are the layers of the cerebral cortex numbered?

Layer I is at the top

12

What is the major cell type seen in the cerebral cortex?

Pyramidal cells

- Basal dendrites & apical dendrites in the cortical layers
- Axons leave the cortex

13

What are fusiform cells?

Modified granular cell

- Apical & basal dendrites
- Axon leaves the cortex and goes to the THALAMUS

14

What cell types are considered interneurons?

- Stellate
- Granule--makes the distinction between granular and agranular
- Basket cell

15

What are the characteristics of interneurons?

Axons run horizontal in the cortex

16

What are retzius-cajal cells?

Cell that occurs in the upper parts of the cortex

17

What are Cells of Martiontti?

Cells that occur in the lower cortical layers

18

What cells from the cortex form most of the white matter?

Pyramidal cells

19

What are association fibers? List the association fibers.

White matter tracts that run within the SAME hemisphere

E.g.
- Superior longitudinal fasiculus
- Unciante fasiculus
- Occiptofrontal fasiculus

20

What are commissural fibers? List the commissural fibers.

White matter tracts that run to the OPPOSITE hemisphere

E.g.
- Corpus callosum
- Anterior commissure
- Posterior commissure

21

What are projection fibers?

White matter fibers that project from the cortex to spinal cord & vice versa

E.g.
- Posterior limb of the internal capsule
- Crus cerebri

22

What is the major landmark for the posterior limb of the internal capulse on coronal section?

Thalamus

23

Name the six layers of the cortex. What cell types are associated with these layers?

I= molecular
- Cells of Cajal

II= External granular
- Granular cells

III= External pyramidal
- Pyramidal

IV= Internal granular
- Granular

V= Internal pyramidal
- Pyramidal

VI= Multiform
- Fusiform cells

24

Describe the shape of the pyramidal cells in the external pyramidal layer and the internal pyramidal layer.

External= small to medium sized pyramidal cells

Internal= large sized pyramidal cells

25

What directions do the axons of Layers I & II project? What is the functional implication?

Horizontal axonal projections result in integration

26

What direction do the axons of the Layer III project?

External pyramidal layer= Output

27

What direction do the axons of the Layer IV project?

Internal granular layer= Input

28

What direction do the axons of the Layer V project?

Internal pyramidal layer= Output

29

What direction do the axons of the Layer VI project?

Mulitform/fusiform layer= Output

30

What cortical layers is expanded in the Primary Motor Cortex?

Layer III & Layer V i.e. output layers
- External Pyramidal Layer
- Internal Pyramidal Layer

31

What cortical layers are expanded in the Primary Sensory Cortex?

Layer II & IV= Input
- Internal Granular Layer= Layer II

32

What are Brodmann's areas based on?

Cytoarchitecture of the gray matter

33

What Brodmann area is the Primary Motor Cortex?

Brodmann 4

34

What Brodmann area is the Premotor Cortex?

Brodmann 6

35

What Brodmann area is the Frontal Eye Field?

Brodmann 6

36

Where is Broca's Area?

Brodmann 45

****In the region of the triangular & opercular gyri of the lateral frontal lobe

37

What does a lesion to Broca's Area result in?

Inability to speak--comprehension is maintained

38

What Brodmann area is the Somatosensory Cortex?

Brodmann 3,1,2

39

What Brodmann area is the Somatosensory Association Cortex?

Brodmann 5 & 7

40

What Brodmann area is the Primary Visual Cortex?

Brodmann 17

41

What Brodmann area is the Visual Association Cortex?

Brodmann 18 & 19

42

What Brodmann area is the Primary Auditory Cortex?

Brodmann 41

*****Note that this is in the area of the superior temporal gyrus

43

What Brodmann area is the Auditory Association Cortex?

Brodmann 42

44

What Brodmann area is the Wernicke's Area?

Brodmann 22

45

What does a lesion to Wernicke's Area result in?

Intact speech without comprehension

46

What Brodmann area is the Cingulate Gyrus?

Brodmann 24

47

What was the main cortical structure damaged in the famous Phineas Gage case? What did this result in?

Cingulate Gyrus-- Brodmann 24

****Cingulate Gyrus= limbic system--resulted in drastic change in personality

48

What is apraxia?

Impairment in the performance of learned motor movements

49

What is agnosia?

Inability to process sensory information

50

What are the major functions of the left hemisphere?

Language
Math

51

What are the major functions of the right hemisphere?

Creativity
Intuition

52

What is melodic intonation therapy?

Therapeutic process used by music therapists and speech-language pathologists to help patients with communication disorders caused by damage to the LEFT hemisphere of the brain.

*****Speech= LEFT, Song= RIGHT