Flashcards in Exam #1: Lab 1 Deck (50):
What are the functions of the cerebellum?
What is the arbor vitae?
“Tree of life” i.e. the white matter of the cerebellum
What is the embryological derivation of the cerebrum?
What does the Prosencephalon divide into?
What causes the cephalic flexure?
Overgrowth of the Telencephalon causes an anterior flexion between the Diencephalon & brainstem, specifically the midbrain
What are the embryological terms used to describe direction in the brain?
Rostral= anterior i.e. toward the beak
Caudal= toward the tail
*Note that these change their orientation when the cephalic flexure
What is the longitudinal fissure?
Division between the cerebral hemisphere
What are the elevations of the brain called?
What are the depressions of the brain called?
What is the difference between a sulcus & a fissure?
- Fissures are much deeper than sulci
- Arachnoid mater penetrates fissures but not sulci
What is the grey matter in the brain?
Neuronal cell bodies
* Typically seen peripherally in the cerebrum BUT there are some nuclei that contain grey matter deeper in the brain
What is the white matter in the brain?
Dendrites & myelinated axons in the brain b/c of myelin
What is the central sulcus? What borders the central sulcus?
- Divides the frontal & parietal lobes
- Pre-central gyrus is immediately anterior (motor)
- Post-central gyrus is immediately posterior (sensory)
What is the transverse fissure?
Division of the cerebellum from the cerebrum; contains the tentorium cerebelli
What is the parieto-occipital sulcus?
Division of the parietal & occipital lobes; seen only on mid-sagittal view
What is the limbic lobe?
Encircles the corpus callosum—this is the oldest part of the cortex
What are the parts of the limbic lobe?
Cingulate gyrus= superior to the corpus callosum
Isthmus of the Cingulate Gyrus= narrowing of the cingulate gyrus posteriorly
Uncus= superior to the parahippocampal gyrus
Parahippocampal gyrus= inferior portion of the limbic lobe near the brainstem
What structure lies deep to the uncus?
What is the pre-occipital notch? What is the parieto-occipital notch? What do these two structures delineate?
Pre-occipital= notch just superior to the transverse fissure
Parieto-occipital notch= indentation
*Landmarks for differentiating between the parietal, temporal & occipital lobes
What is the precentral gyrus?
Primary motor area
What is the postcentral gyrus?
Primary sensory area
What is the insular cortex? Where is the insula?
The insular cortex is the cortex that lies deep to the lateral cerebral sulcus
What are poles in the brain?
Edges of the lobes of the brain
What is the Dicenephalon? What are the structures of the diencephalon?
Embryologically, it was part of the prosencephalon that later divides into the telencephalon & diencephalon. The structures of the diencephalon are the thalamic structures (gray matter/ nuclei) that include:
- Epithalamus= posterior—also called the pineal gland & sitting in the transverse fissure
- Thalamus= major sensory nucleus & largest
- Hypothalamus= anterior
- Subthalamus= lateral
What are the parts of the corpus callosum?
Body= major portion
Splenium= posterior swelling
What are the two major sources of blood to the brain i.e. anterior & posterior circulation?
Posterior= vertebral arteries
Anterior= internal carotids
Where do the vertebral arteries join? What artery do they form when they join?
- Pontomedullary junction
- Basilar artery, which runs the midline of the pons
What branch of the basilar artery comes off at the ponto-midbrain junction?
Posterior cerebral arteriesposterior part of the cerebral cortex
What artery joints the posterior communicating artery to the internal carotids?
What are the branches of the internal carotid?
Middle cerebral a. -->lateral sulcus
Anterior cerebral a. -->anterior sulcus
What do the middle & anterior cerebral arteries supply?
Middle= lateral surface of the cortex
Anterior= medial surface of the cortex
What is the anterior communicating artery?
Artery that joins the two anterior communicating arteries—an important anastamosis
What structure does the circle of willis form a circle around?
What structure do the anterior cerebral arteries run superior to? Specifically what part?
Corpus callosum—genu, or bend
In terms of the meninges, where do the cerebral arteries run?
Beneath the arachnoid mater, in the subarachnoid space i.e. between the pia mater & the the arachnoid mater
What are the branches of the basilar artery?
AICA= anterior inferior cerebellar artery= rostral medulla & caudal pons
SCA= superior cerebellar artery= cerebellum, rostral pons, caudal midbrain
PCA= posterior cerebral artery
What are the branches of the vertebral arteries?
PICA= posterior inferior cerebellar artery that wraps around the medulla, giving blood to both the cerebellum & lateral medulla
ASA= anterior spinal artery that also supplies medial medulla
Where do the cranial dura & spinal dura join?
What artery runs superior to the dura?
What are arachnoid granulations?
Contain villi that remove CSF & reabsorb them into the dural venous sinus
Where is the subdural space?
Above the arachnoid mater
What are the four ventricles of the brain?
2x lateral= c-shaped & named for the lobes that they’re in (go through all 4 lobes)
What is the interventricular foramen (of monroe)?
Structure that joins the lateral ventricles into the 3rd ventricle
Where is the 3rd ventricle?
Between the thalamus
What connects that third ventricle to the fourth ventricle? Where is this structure located?
Cerebral aqueduct, which is in the midbrain
Where are lateral ventricles?
Beneath the corpus callosum
What is the septum pellucidum?
Wall between the left & right lateral ventricles
What are the four openings of the fourth ventricle?
- Central canal of the spinal cord
- Subarachnoid space via the 2x lateral foramen/ foramen of Luschka
- Median aperture into the subarachnoid space
Where is the choroid plexus? What is the choroid plexus?
Inside the ventricles—capillary bed that forms the CSF