Exam #1: Lab 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #1: Lab 1 Deck (50):
1

What are the functions of the cerebellum?

Balance

2

What is the arbor vitae?

“Tree of life” i.e. the white matter of the cerebellum

3

What is the embryological derivation of the cerebrum?

Prosencephalon

4

What does the Prosencephalon divide into?

Telencephaloncerebrum
Diencephalon

5

What causes the cephalic flexure?

Overgrowth of the Telencephalon causes an anterior flexion between the Diencephalon & brainstem, specifically the midbrain

6

What are the embryological terms used to describe direction in the brain?

Rostral= anterior i.e. toward the beak
Caudal= toward the tail
Dorsal= back
Ventral= front

*Note that these change their orientation when the cephalic flexure

7

What is the longitudinal fissure?

Division between the cerebral hemisphere

8

What are the elevations of the brain called?

Gyri

9

What are the depressions of the brain called?

Sulci

10

What is the difference between a sulcus & a fissure?

- Fissures are much deeper than sulci
- Arachnoid mater penetrates fissures but not sulci

11

What is the grey matter in the brain?

Neuronal cell bodies
Unmyelinated axons
Dendrites

* Typically seen peripherally in the cerebrum BUT there are some nuclei that contain grey matter deeper in the brain

12

What is the white matter in the brain?

Dendrites & myelinated axons in the brain b/c of myelin

13

What is the central sulcus? What borders the central sulcus?

- Divides the frontal & parietal lobes
- Pre-central gyrus is immediately anterior (motor)
- Post-central gyrus is immediately posterior (sensory)

14

What is the transverse fissure?

Division of the cerebellum from the cerebrum; contains the tentorium cerebelli

15

What is the parieto-occipital sulcus?

Division of the parietal & occipital lobes; seen only on mid-sagittal view

16

What is the limbic lobe?

Encircles the corpus callosum—this is the oldest part of the cortex

17

What are the parts of the limbic lobe?

Cingulate gyrus= superior to the corpus callosum

Isthmus of the Cingulate Gyrus= narrowing of the cingulate gyrus posteriorly

Uncus= superior to the parahippocampal gyrus

Parahippocampal gyrus= inferior portion of the limbic lobe near the brainstem

18

What structure lies deep to the uncus?

Amygdala

19

What is the pre-occipital notch? What is the parieto-occipital notch? What do these two structures delineate?

Pre-occipital= notch just superior to the transverse fissure

Parieto-occipital notch= indentation

*Landmarks for differentiating between the parietal, temporal & occipital lobes

20

What is the precentral gyrus?

Primary motor area

21

What is the postcentral gyrus?

Primary sensory area

22

What is the insular cortex? Where is the insula?

The insular cortex is the cortex that lies deep to the lateral cerebral sulcus

23

What are poles in the brain?

Edges of the lobes of the brain
- Frontal
- Temporal
- Occipital

24

What is the Dicenephalon? What are the structures of the diencephalon?

Embryologically, it was part of the prosencephalon that later divides into the telencephalon & diencephalon. The structures of the diencephalon are the thalamic structures (gray matter/ nuclei) that include:
- Epithalamus= posterior—also called the pineal gland & sitting in the transverse fissure
- Thalamus= major sensory nucleus & largest
- Hypothalamus= anterior
- Subthalamus= lateral

25

What are the parts of the corpus callosum?

Rostrum= beak
Genu= bend
Body= major portion
Splenium= posterior swelling

26

What are the two major sources of blood to the brain i.e. anterior & posterior circulation?

Posterior= vertebral arteries
Anterior= internal carotids

27

Where do the vertebral arteries join? What artery do they form when they join?

- Pontomedullary junction
- Basilar artery, which runs the midline of the pons

28

What branch of the basilar artery comes off at the ponto-midbrain junction?

Posterior cerebral arteriesposterior part of the cerebral cortex

29

What artery joints the posterior communicating artery to the internal carotids?

Posterior communicating

30

What are the branches of the internal carotid?

Middle cerebral a. -->lateral sulcus
Anterior cerebral a. -->anterior sulcus

31

What do the middle & anterior cerebral arteries supply?

Middle= lateral surface of the cortex
Anterior= medial surface of the cortex

32

What is the anterior communicating artery?

Artery that joins the two anterior communicating arteries—an important anastamosis

33

What structure does the circle of willis form a circle around?

Pituitary gland

34

What structure do the anterior cerebral arteries run superior to? Specifically what part?

Corpus callosum—genu, or bend

35

In terms of the meninges, where do the cerebral arteries run?

Beneath the arachnoid mater, in the subarachnoid space i.e. between the pia mater & the the arachnoid mater

36

What are the branches of the basilar artery?

AICA= anterior inferior cerebellar artery= rostral medulla & caudal pons

SCA= superior cerebellar artery= cerebellum, rostral pons, caudal midbrain

PCA= posterior cerebral artery

37

What are the branches of the vertebral arteries?

PICA= posterior inferior cerebellar artery that wraps around the medulla, giving blood to both the cerebellum & lateral medulla

ASA= anterior spinal artery that also supplies medial medulla

38

Where do the cranial dura & spinal dura join?

Foramen magnum

39

What artery runs superior to the dura?

Middle meningeal

40

What are arachnoid granulations?

Contain villi that remove CSF & reabsorb them into the dural venous sinus

41

Where is the subdural space?

Above the arachnoid mater

42

What are the four ventricles of the brain?

2x lateral= c-shaped & named for the lobes that they’re in (go through all 4 lobes)
3rd
4th

43

What is the interventricular foramen (of monroe)?

Structure that joins the lateral ventricles into the 3rd ventricle

44

Where is the 3rd ventricle?

Between the thalamus

45

What connects that third ventricle to the fourth ventricle? Where is this structure located?

Cerebral aqueduct, which is in the midbrain

46

Where are lateral ventricles?

Beneath the corpus callosum

47

What is the septum pellucidum?

Wall between the left & right lateral ventricles

48

What are the four openings of the fourth ventricle?

- Central canal of the spinal cord
- Subarachnoid space via the 2x lateral foramen/ foramen of Luschka
- Median aperture into the subarachnoid space

49

Where is the choroid plexus? What is the choroid plexus?

Inside the ventricles—capillary bed that forms the CSF

50

Why is there no Choroid Plexus in the Cerebral Aqueduct?

The diameter of the Cerebral Aqueduct is too small to accommodate the choroid plexus