Exam #1: Lab 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #1: Lab 2 Deck (54):
1

What is the cervical enlargement?

Roots of the brachial plexus coming off the cervical spinal cord= larger cord

2

What do the ventral primary rami become in the thoracic spinal cord?

Intercostal nerves

3

What is the lumbar enlargement?

Area of the cord that innervates the lower limb

4

What is the conus medullaris? Where is the conus medullaris?

~L1 the end of the spinal cord

5

What is the filuman terminale?

Pia mater anchor for the spinal dura at the end of the spinal cord

6

Where is the gray matter?

“Butterfly” in the middle of the cord; this is the unmyelinated neuronal cell bodies, axons & dendrites

7

Where is the white matter/

Outside of the butterfly

8

How does the white:gray matter ratio of the cervical cord compare to other regions? Why?

In the cervical cord there is much more white matter b/c this is the ascending & descending tracts of myelinated axons & dendrites from all of the body

9

Where is the anterior horn on the cross-section of the spinal cord? What does the anterior horn contain?

Anterior horn= bottom of the butterfly that contains motonuerons

10

Where is the dorsal horn on the cross-section of the spinal cord? What does the dorsal horn contain?

Wing-tips of the butterfly that contain sensory neurons

11

Where is the lateral horn on the cross-section of the spinal cord? What does the lateral horn contain?

Preganglionic cell bodies of the SNS—T1-L2

12

What is the ventral median fissure?

Wide/ deep groove that is specific for the ventral aspect of the spinal cord

13

What is the dorsal median sulcus?

Shallow groove in the dorsal part of the spinal cord

14

What is & where is the dorsal faniculus/ posterior faniculus?

This is the white matter between the two dorsal/ posterior horns i.e. the wingtips of the butterfly

15

What is & where is the lateral faniculus?

This is the white matter lateral to the two dorsal/ posterior horns i.e. the wingtips of the butterfly

16

What is & where is the anterior faniculus?

This is the white matter anterior to the ventral horns i.e. the body of the butterfly

17

How does the white:gray matter ratio change in the lumbar spinal cord? Why?

Less white & more gray matter b/c the descending motor tracts have “left” gone to the upper body & sensory tracts only contain information from the lower limb

18

What is the anterior horn?

Body of the butterfly that contains cell bodies of the lower motoneurons

19

How is the posterior/ dorsal horn of the gray matter divided?

The posterior horn is divided into “Rexed’s Lamina”

20

What are the major division of the posterior horn that we are responsible for? What is their function?

Substantia gelatinosa—”Rexed’s Lamina II” = pain & temperature

Nucleus proprius= pain & temperature

21

What is Lissauer’s Tract?

- This is a white matter tract that sits just outside of the posterior horn; it is also called the “dorsolateral tract”
- This bundle of myelinated axons comes from cell bodies of sensory neurons located in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG)

22

Where are the DRG in relation to Lissaruer’s Tract?

DRG sits outside of the cord in the proximal spinal nerve. Axons of the DRG exit the spinal nerve & enter the spinal cord to form “Lissauer’s Tract.”

23

What is the function of Lissauer’s Tract?

Pain
Temp
Crude touch fibers

24

How does the pons appear on gross dissection?

Swollen portion of the brainstem

25

What forms the pons?

Tracts that leave the cerebellar hemispheres, especially the middle cerebellar peduncle

*Note that the pons is called the “basis pedunculi” b/c is the structure that bridges the two cerebellar hemispheres

26

What is the anterior median fissure?

Ventral fissure that continues from the cord into the brain

27

What are the pyramids?

Columns of white matter that sit just lateral to the ventral fissure in the medulla

28

What is the olive?

Hallmark of the medulla that sits just lateral to the pyramids

29

What are the pre & post-olivary sulci?

These are the sulci adjacent to the olive
- Pre= between olive & the pyraminds medially
- Post= lateral to the olive

30

What are the cerebral peduncles?

Columns of white matter coming down into the midbrain from the cerebrum

31

What is the Corpora Quadrigemina?

“Four bodies” that indicate that you’re in the midbrain or “tectum (roof) of the midbrain”

32

What are the superior colliculi?

- Two superior nuceli of the Corpora Quadrigemina
- Function in vision

33

What are the inferior colliculi?

- Two inferior nuceli of the Corpora Quadrigemina
- Function in hearing

34

What is the name of the sulcus visualized of the brainstem from the dorsal view?

Dorsal median sulcus

35

Where does the 4th ventricle sit relative to the dorsal brainstem?

Superior to the dorsal brainstem, between the pons & the medulla

36

What is the MCP or Middle Cerebellar Peducle?

White matter tract from the cerebellum to the pons

37

What is the ICP or Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle?

White matter tract connecting the cerebellum to the medulla

38

What is the SCP?

White matter from cerebral cortex to the midbrain

39

What EOM is specific to CN III (oculomotor)?

Medial Rectus

40

Where is the root of CN V(trigeminal) in relation to the ventral brain?

Lateral pons

41

What is the name of CN CN VI? What EOM does it specifically innervate?

“Abducens” Lateral rectus

42

Where is CN VI (Abducens) in relation to the ventral brain?

Ponto-medullary junction, medially

43

Where are CN VII & CN VIIII in relation to the ventral brain?

Lateral ponto-medullary junction

44

What is the landmark for CN IX, X & XI?

Olive; specifically, the post-olivary sulcus

45

What is the landmark for CN XII?

Olive; specifically, the pre-olivary sulcus

46

Where does CN IV leave the brain?

Dorsally

47

What forms the basilar pons?

This is a swelling formed by the middle cerebellar peduncle

48

What is the tegmentum? What does the tegmentum contain?

“Floor” of the midbrain & pons that contains cranial nerve nuclei

49

What divides the tectum & tegmentum?

Cerebral aqueduct

50

What is the Crus Cerebri?

This is a collection of descending white matter tracts from cerebral cortex into the midbrain; it is on the anterior aspect of the midbrain

51

What is the white wavy structure that is deep to the olive seen on cross-sectional view?

“Inferior olivary nucleus”

52

What is the hallmark that tells you that you’re in the rostal midbrain?

Red Nucleus

53

What are the three parts of the cerebral peduncle?

1) Crus cerebri
2) Substania Nigra
3) Tegmentum of the midbrain

54

What is the interpeduncular fossa?

Fossa between the two cerebral peduncles