Exam #1: Obesity I Flashcards Preview

Preventative Med. & Nutrition > Exam #1: Obesity I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam #1: Obesity I Deck (26):
1

What is the definition of obesity in adults? Children?

Adults= >30
Children= >95th percentile on growth chart

*Morbid= >40

2

How is BMI calculated?

weight/height

3

What are the limitations of the BMI?

- Measure of excess body weight, not necessarily fat
- Does not take lean mass into account
- Does not distinguish distribution of fat

4

What are the waist circumferences that place one in a high risk category?

Male= >40 inches
Female= > 32 inches

5

What are the definitions of obesity I, II, and III?

I= 30-34.9
II= 35- 39.9
III= >40

6

List diseases that obesity is a risk factor for.

CVD
DM
CVA
HTN
DM
Cancer
Gyn abnormalities
OA
Gallstones

7

What is the definition of Metabolic Syndrome?

3/5 of the following:

- Elevated waist circumference
- Elevated TG
- Reduced HDL
- HTN
- Elevated fasting glucose

8

What are some of the major factors affecting obesity?

- Decreased physical activity
- Bigger portions
- Refined carbohydrate consumption
- Media/ marketing
- Fast food consumption
- Packaged food consumption

9

What are the organic diseases that can lead to obesity?

- Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
- Hypothyroidism
- Cushing's Syndrome

10

What types of medications can induce weight gain?

- Glucocorticoids/ steroids
- Antypsychotics/ mood stabilizers
- Antidepressants
- DM
- Antiepileptic

11

From an evolutionary perspective, what are the three major arguments for the obesity epidemic we have today?

1) Adaptive
2) Maladaptive
3) Neutral

12

What is the adaptive evolutionary argument for obesity?

- Fat accumulation advantageous
- Famine selected for genes (thrifty genes) that favored deposition

*****This has become disadvantageous in modern society

13

What is the maladaptive evolutionary argument for obesity?

- Obesity has never been advantageous
- Obesity coupled with advantageous factor-- Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT)

14

What is the neutral evolutionary argument for obesity?

Set Point
- Lower intervention limit set by starvation
- Upper set by risk of predation

*****The development of social behavior, weapons, and fire has diminished pressure on upper limit

15

What regulates energy homeostasis?

- Brain
- GI Tract
- Adipose tissue

16

What hormones/ messengers are involved in appetite?

- Leptin
- Ghrelin
- GLP-1
- Adiponectin

17

What is the prandial state?

- Eaten and newly ingested/ absorbed nutrients are available
- Generate "satiety" signals and inhibit "hunger" signals
- Nutrients are rapidly used or stored

18

What is the post-absoprtive state?

- No calories entering circulation from GI tract
- No satiety signals
- Hunger signals generated
- Stored energy released into blood

19

What are the satiety hormones?

CCK
PYY
GLP-1
Leptin

20

What is the hunger hormone?

Ghrelin

21

What is the function of CCK?

- Small intestine releases in response to feeding
- Causes release of digestive enzymes from pancreas & bile from gallbladder

22

What is the function of PYY?

Insulin peptide hormone released by pancreas in response to high blood sugar

23

What are the function of GLP-1?

- Increased insulin secretion and sensitivity
- Decreased glucagon secretion
- Inhibition of acid secretion
- Inhibits gastric emptying

24

What is the function of Leptin?

- Released by adipose tissue
- Binds leptin receptors in hypothalamus to signal satiety

*****Note that mice knockouts are obese; humans can get "leptin resistance" from chronic overeating

25

What is the function of ghrelin?

- Produced by stomach and pancreas
- Secreted when stomach is empty
- Increases gastric acid secretion & GI mobility

26

What is the difference between physical and emotional hunger?

See ppt.