Flashcards in Exam #1: Obesity I Deck (26):
What is the definition of obesity in adults? Children?
Children= >95th percentile on growth chart
How is BMI calculated?
What are the limitations of the BMI?
- Measure of excess body weight, not necessarily fat
- Does not take lean mass into account
- Does not distinguish distribution of fat
What are the waist circumferences that place one in a high risk category?
Male= >40 inches
Female= > 32 inches
What are the definitions of obesity I, II, and III?
II= 35- 39.9
List diseases that obesity is a risk factor for.
What is the definition of Metabolic Syndrome?
3/5 of the following:
- Elevated waist circumference
- Elevated TG
- Reduced HDL
- Elevated fasting glucose
What are some of the major factors affecting obesity?
- Decreased physical activity
- Bigger portions
- Refined carbohydrate consumption
- Media/ marketing
- Fast food consumption
- Packaged food consumption
What are the organic diseases that can lead to obesity?
- Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
- Cushing's Syndrome
What types of medications can induce weight gain?
- Glucocorticoids/ steroids
- Antypsychotics/ mood stabilizers
From an evolutionary perspective, what are the three major arguments for the obesity epidemic we have today?
What is the adaptive evolutionary argument for obesity?
- Fat accumulation advantageous
- Famine selected for genes (thrifty genes) that favored deposition
*****This has become disadvantageous in modern society
What is the maladaptive evolutionary argument for obesity?
- Obesity has never been advantageous
- Obesity coupled with advantageous factor-- Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT)
What is the neutral evolutionary argument for obesity?
- Lower intervention limit set by starvation
- Upper set by risk of predation
*****The development of social behavior, weapons, and fire has diminished pressure on upper limit
What regulates energy homeostasis?
- GI Tract
- Adipose tissue
What hormones/ messengers are involved in appetite?
What is the prandial state?
- Eaten and newly ingested/ absorbed nutrients are available
- Generate "satiety" signals and inhibit "hunger" signals
- Nutrients are rapidly used or stored
What is the post-absoprtive state?
- No calories entering circulation from GI tract
- No satiety signals
- Hunger signals generated
- Stored energy released into blood
What are the satiety hormones?
What is the hunger hormone?
What is the function of CCK?
- Small intestine releases in response to feeding
- Causes release of digestive enzymes from pancreas & bile from gallbladder
What is the function of PYY?
Insulin peptide hormone released by pancreas in response to high blood sugar
What are the function of GLP-1?
- Increased insulin secretion and sensitivity
- Decreased glucagon secretion
- Inhibition of acid secretion
- Inhibits gastric emptying
What is the function of Leptin?
- Released by adipose tissue
- Binds leptin receptors in hypothalamus to signal satiety
*****Note that mice knockouts are obese; humans can get "leptin resistance" from chronic overeating
What is the function of ghrelin?
- Produced by stomach and pancreas
- Secreted when stomach is empty
- Increases gastric acid secretion & GI mobility