Exam #1: Minerals II Flashcards Preview

Preventative Med. & Nutrition > Exam #1: Minerals II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam #1: Minerals II Deck (71):
1

Where is the majority of the body's iron found?

Hemoglobin

2

What is the point of regulation for iron?

Absorption

3

What are the two types of iron? Where do the different types of iron come from?

Heme= animals ONLY

Nonheme= BOTH plant and animal sources

4

Which form of iron is more readily absorbed?

Heme

5

What can increase the absorption of non-heme iron?

- Acids e.g. Vitamin C
- Sugars

6

What are the major functions of iron?

1) Center of heme/ O2 transport
2) Enzyme component

7

What is the relationship between Vitamin C & Iron?

Vitamin C enhances absorption of non-heme iron

8

What is the relationship between Copper & Iron?

Copper - ceruloplasmin- mobilizes iron from stores in the liver

*****Note that without copper/ ceruloplasmin, iron essentially gets "stuck" in the liver and can cause liver damage

9

What is the relationship between Zinc & Iron?

- Iron decreases the absorption of zinc

****Note that zinc competes for the same portion of the absorptive pathway as iron; thus, high zinc will decrease iron (especially non-heme) absorption

10

What is the relationship between Vitamin A & Iron?

Vitamin A deficiency reduces the distribution of iron to tissue

11

What is the relationship between Lead & Iron?

Lead inhibits the enzyme necessary for heme synthesis AND the enzyme necessary for iron incorporation into heme

12

What are the four groups that are most susceptible to iron deficiency in the US?

1) Infants and young children
2) Adolescents
3) Premenopausal women
4) Pregnant women

13

What are the symptoms of iron deficiency?

- Pallor
- Dizziness
- Palpitations
- Pica
- Fatigue
- Dyspnea
- Angular stomatosis

14

What are the lab findings commonly seen in iron deficiency?

- Decreased Hb
- Microcytic anemia
- Decreased serum iron
- Increase TIBC
- Decreased serum ferritin

****Note that iron deficiency can occur without anemia

15

What are the symptoms of iron toxicity?

- Vomiting
- Diarrhea
- Tissue damage (liver & brain)

16

What is the most typical acute cause of iron toxicity?

Overdose

****Think gummie vitamins

17

What are the chronic causes of iron toxicity

- Hemolytic anemia
- Hemochromatosis
- Idiopathic hereditary hemochromatosis
- Iron-loading anemias i.e. thalassemia & sideroblastic anemia

18

What is the treatment for iron toxicity?

Phlebotomy & chelation

*****Chelation= drug that binds iron so that it can be more readily excreted, best for chronic toxicity

19

What are the major functions of zinc?

- Enzyme cofactor
- Functions in tissue/ cell growth & replication, skin integrity, bone formation, and wound healing
- Immunosuppression
- Carbohydrate metabolism (incorporation into insulin)
- Taste

20

What are the major nutrients, macorminerals, and microminerals essential to wound healing?

- Protein
- Vitamin C
- Zinc

21

What is the relationship between zinc & Vitamin A?

Zinc deficiency is associated with decreased mobilization of retinol (Vitamin A) from liver

*****Zinc is necessary for hepatic synthesis of retinol binding protein

22

What is the relationship between zinc & copper?

Excessive zinc intake decreases copper absorption

23

What is the relationship between zinc & Ca++?

Zinc supplements decrease Ca++ absorption

24

What is the relationship between zinc & folate?

- Folate digestion requires zinc
- Deficiency in zinc could lead to folate deficiency

25

What is the relationship between zinc & cadmium?

Cadmium is a competitive zinc antagonist

26

What is the relationship between zinc & lead?

- Lead may replace zinc in enzyme for heme synthesis
- Toxic levels of lead thus inhibit heme synthesis

27

What are the symptoms of zinc deficiency?

1) Delayed wound healing
2) Hypogonadism
3) Alopecia
4) Dysguesia
5) Anosmia
6) Nonspecific peri-oral rash

28

What are the symptoms of zinc toxicity?

- Metallic taste
- Nausea
- Vomiting
- Diarrhea
- Copper deficiency leading to iron deficiency

*****Remember, HIGH zinc= LOW Copper-->LOW Iron

29

What are the functions of copper?

The major functions of copper include:
- Enzyme cofactor
- Electron donor/ acceptor
- Gene expression by binding to transcription factors

30

What are the enzymes that utilize copper as a cofactor?

1) Ceruloplasmin
2) Cytochrome C
3) Superoxide dismutase
4) Tyrosinase

31

What is the relationship between copper and zinc?

- Toxic levels of zinc inhibits copper absorption
- Copper is an essential component of the enzyme ceruoplasmin
- Ceruloplasmin mobilizes iron from stores in the liver

****Thus, HIGH ZINC = LOW COPPER and LOW IRON

32

What is the relationship between copper and molybdenum?

Molybdenum causes copper excretion

33

What is the relationship between copper and selenium?

Copper deficiency decreases selenium-dependent enzyme function

34

What are the symptoms of copper deficiency?

- Hypochromic anemia
- Neutropenia
- Hypopigmentation
- Imparied immune function
- Demineralization of bone

35

What is Wilson's Disease?

- Disease characterized by defect in transporter required for biliary excretion of copper
- Leads to accumulation of copper in liver, brain, & kidneys
- Causes mental retardation & liver damage

36

What is Menke's Syndrome?

- Disease characterized by defect in transported required for copper into fetus
- Causes slow growth, mental degradation, and kinky white hair

37

What are the symptoms of copper toxicity?

- Nausea
- Vomiting
- Diarrhea
- Hematuria
- Jaundice

****Note that this is v. rare and occurs via water contamination or accidental ingestion

38

What are the functions of Selenium?

- Maintenance and induction of cytochrome p450*
- Cofactor for glutathione peroxidase
- Iodine metabolism; no selenium can lead to iodine deficiency

39

What is the relationship between selenium and lead?

Lead cause a decrease in tissue concentrations of selenium

40

What is the relationship between selenium and iron?

Iron deficiency decreases synthesis of glutathione peroxidase & selenium concentrations

41

What is the relationship between selenium and copper?

Copper deficiency decreases activity of selenium-dependent enzymes

42

What is the relationship between selenium and methionine?

Methionine deficiency causes decreased selenium potency

43

What is Keshan Disease?

Regional selenium deficiency seen in China that is characterized by:
- Cardiomyopathy w/ cardiogenic shock
- CHF
- Necrosis of the heart

*****Note that this disease also requires exposure to COXSACKIE virus

44

What is Kashin-Beck's Disease?

Regional selenium deficiency seen in China that is characterized by:
- Osteoarthropathy
- Degeneration & necrosis of joints

45

What are the symptoms of Selenosis?

- Nausea
- Vomiting
- Fatigue
- Hair & nail loss
- Inhibition of protein synthesis

*****Note that this can be seen in miners, and those with an excessive intake

46

What are the functions of iodine?

1) Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones
2) Controls basal metabolic rate, growth, development, protein synthesis, and energy metabolism

47

What are the symptoms of iodine deficiency?

Hypothyroidism w/
- Goiter
- Decreased cold tolerance
- Overweight
- Coarse hair

48

What are the symptoms of iodine toxicity?

Hyperthyroidism
- Weight loss
- Exopthalmous
- Heat intolerance
- Goiter

49

What is the major function of fluoride?

Mineralization of teeth and bones

50

What nutrients reduce uptake of flouride?

Aluminum
Ca++
Mg++
Cl-

51

What nutrients increase flouride uptake?

Phosphate
Sulfate

52

What are the symptoms of flouride deficiency?

- Dental carries
- Decreased integrity of skeletal tissue

53

What are the symptoms of fluorosis?

- Mottling of teeth
- Changes in bone, kidney, & nerve/muscle function

54

What are the functions of chromium?

- Binds nicotinic acid & amino acids to form glucose intolerance factor
- Glucose intolerance factor initiates disulfide bridging between insulin and the insulin receptor; thus, the effectiveness of insulin is INCREASED with chromium
- Glucose & lipid metabolism

55

What are the symptoms of chromium deficiency?

- Glucose intolerance
- Insulin resistance
- Hyperinsulinemia

56

What are the symptoms of chromium toxicity?

- Respiratory distress
- Dermatitis
- Ulercation

*****Note that this comes from inhalation or direct skin contact

57

What are the functions of manganese?

- Enzyme activator & constituent of metalloenzymes
- Modulator of second messenger pathways

58

What are the symptoms of manganese deficiency?

Nausea
Vomiting
Dermatitis
Decreased growth of hair & nails
Low blood cholesterol

*****This is very rare and typically only seen if intentionally eliminated from the diet

59

What are the symptoms of manganese toxicity?

- Liver failure
- Parkinson-like sx

60

hare the functions of molybdenum?

Component of enzymes involved in redox reactions

61

What are the symptoms of molybdenum deficiency?

- High blood methionine
- Low blood xanthine
- Low blood uric acid

*****Associated with esophageal cancer & long-term TPN admin.

62

What are the symptoms of molybdenum toxicity?`

Gout due to high uric acid concentrations

63

List the ultra-trace elements.

Nickel
Silicon
Vanadium
Arsenic
Boron
Cobalt
Tin
Lithium

64

What is the most likely source of aluminum toxicity?

Food additives and antacids

65

What are the symptoms of aluminum toxicity?

- Renal encephalopathy
- Neurotoxicity

66

What is the source of cadmium toxicity?

Pollution

67

What are the symptoms of cadmium toxicity?

- Osteomalacia by antagonizing Ca++ metabolism
- Anemia by antagonizing zinc & iron

68

What is the source of mercury toxicity?

Pollution (run off that accumulates in fish)

69

What are the symptoms of mercury toxicity?

- Ataxia
- Visual problems
- Mental retardation
- Neuromuscular problems in infants

70

What is the source of lead toxicity?

Lead paint in older buildings & pottery

71

What are the symptoms of lead toxicity?

Neurological, kidney & hematological damage