Exam 2 - Gastrointestinal system Flashcards Preview

PTH560 Pathology > Exam 2 - Gastrointestinal system > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 - Gastrointestinal system Deck (35):
1

digestion

Mechanical = teeth, churning, etc

chemical = enzymes

*most digestion occurs in small intestines

2

absorption

-almost all and 80% of water absorption occur in small intestine (specific jejunum)

3

Regulation of digestive tract

-autonomic nervous system
-endocrine (gastrin, secretin, cck)
-paracrine (histamine and prostaglandins)

4

common problems with GI issues

-malnourishment
-vitamin and mineral deficiencies
-anorexia
-cachexia (wasting syndrome)
-dehydration
-osteoporosis
-anemia
-clotting disorders
-weakness, fatigue, de-conditioning

5

GI signs and symptoms

-nausea
-vomiting
-diarrhea
-constipation
-dysphagia
-heartburn
-abdominal pain
-GI bleeding (poop stuff)
-fecal incontinence

6

Causes of nausea/vomiting

general stuffffff

-neurological
= inc intracranial pressure, concussion, homorrhage, vestibular, migraines)

7

Achalasia (what is it)

-inc tone of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) - failure to relax normally when swallowing

causes chest pain, fullness, dysphagia.

can lead to dilatation of the esophagus and lack of peristalsis

8

Achalasia (why)

-loss of myenteric ganglion cells and inhibitory neurons, reduced NO production likely play a role
-may occur cuz of other disorders

treat: pneumatic balloon dilation, myotomy, nitrates, botox

9

Gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD

-inflammation of esophagus resulting from reflux of stomach acid into esophagus

10

GERD causes

-reduced pressure in LES
-inc gastric or intra-ab pressure
-position

it is common
-fat people, age, what you eat and drink, etc

11

GERD signs and symptoms

-chest pain
-burning (heartburn)
-dysphagia and/or painful swallowing
-belching
-indigestion
-regurgitation
-chronic cough
-laryngitis

-long term can inc risk of cancer and pulmonary complications (barrett esophagus)

12

Treating GERD

-lifestyle
-meds (antacids, H2 receptor blocks, proton pump inhibitors)
-surgery

13

Hiatal hernia

-hernia of stomach through diaphragm
-due to weak diaphragm or inc intra-ab pressure (aging, trauma, etc)

signs: like GERD
med treatment: like GERD. surgery if severe

14

Esophageal cancers (types, signs, treatment, prog)

-squamous cell carcinoma
-adenocarcinoma

signs: pain with swallowing, wt loss, hematemesis, chest pain, hoarseness, fistula thingy

treat: prevent. or do surgery, radiation, chemo

prog: most detected late. survival bad

15

Squamous cell carcinoma

-most common worldwide
-more common in blacks in US
-risk factors: alcohol, tobacco, achalasia, nutritional deficiencies

16

Adenocarcinoma

Esophageal cancer

-rising incidence in the US
-more common in middle aged caucasian men
-barrett esophagus most common cause

17

What is Gastritis?

inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastric mucosa)

Acute hemorrhagic and chronic

18

Acute hemorrhagic gastritis

-characterized by erosion of mucosal epithelium
-associated with ASA/NSAIDs, EtOH, and stress

19

Chronic gastritis

Type A: rare, links to autoimmune disorders

Type B: more common, liked to H. pylori infection

20

Gastritis (symptoms and treatment)

symptoms
-epigastric pain, ab distension, loss of appetite, nausea, GI bleeding
-may develop anemia

Treat:
-avoid irritation
-PPIs, antacids, H2 blocks, antimicrobials for H. pylori

21

what is Peptic ulcer disease (PUD)

-deeper ulceration in stomach or duodenum
- 90% caused by H. pylori

-can involve mucosa, submucosa, and muscular layers
-chronic inflam is bad

22

PUD signs and treatment

signs
-ab pain, loss of appetite, nausea/vomiting

treatment
-antibiotics, antacids, pump inhibitors, H2 blockers, stop using ASA/NSAIDs, surgery

23

Pyloric stenosis

-obstruction of pyloric sphincter (stomach -> duodenum)
-congenital or acquired

symptoms: projectile vomit, node in RUQ (infants)

Diag: ultrasound
Treat: surgery

24

Gastric cancer

-adenocarcinoma = most common

treatment: surgery, chemo
Prog: depends on severity

25

Malabsorption syndrome

-reduced intestinal absorption of food and lose nutrients in poo
-either maldigestion or malabsorption

-many causes: celiac, CF, crohns, etc

-common nutrients: fat, iron, mg, K, vit K/B12/D

26

Crohn's vs ulcerative colitis

Crohn's
-any segment. usually small or large intestines
-entire intestinal wall involved

Ulcerative colitis
-Large intestine. Rectum
-more superficial layers

27

Inflammatory bowel disease

-inappropriate immune response as a result of a lot of factors.
-Crohn's and ulcerative colitis

Treat: drugs, diet, surgery

*increases risk of cancer

28

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBD)

-functional disorder of GI motility - absence of inflammation, no identifiable abnormality of the bowel

signs: diarrhea and constipation, bloating

diag: depends
Treat: diet, meds, stress management etcccccc

29

Diverticular disease

-herniation of large intestinal mucosa and submucosa through muscle layers of intestinal wall

-sigmoid colon most common

30

What is diverticulitis?

When poo is trapped in diverticula and gets infected

31

Bowel obstruction

Mechanical = physically blocked
Functional = lack of parastalsis

treat: restricted oral intake, NG tube, surgery

32

what is a Hernia?

Protrusion of the intestine through fascial defect in the ab wall

33

What are hemorrhoids?

varicose veins of the anus and lower rectum

Treatment is typically to reduce pain and itching. may need surgery chronically

34

What is appendicitis

-inflammation of appendix
-McBurney's point

Treat: remove it and antibiotics

35

Colon cancer

-Adenocarcinoma of colon is more common malignancy of the GI tract
-2nd leading cause of cancer death in US

-often slow growing. starts with a polyp
-cellular hyperplasia and transformation

Prevent: screening. 50 yrs old. every 5-10 yrs

symptoms: bloody poo. ETC