Flashcards in Exam 3 - Renal and urologic systems Deck (29):
What is the function of the renal and urologic systems?
*-filter waste products and remove excess fluid from the blood
- control mineral and water balance
- acid-base regulation
- secretion of endocrine hormones
-control arterial pressure
-store and excrete urine
3 locations that can be messed up with urine formation
1- blood flowing into the kidneys
2- blood within the kidney
3- changes in capillary pressures
What is GFR?
-glomerular filtration rate
-depends on a few things and is a good marker of kidney pathology going on
Acute kidney injury
-aka acute renal failure
-characterized by: rapid dec in GFR, dysregulation of fluid and electrolyte balance, and retention of metabolic waste products with dec urine flow
Chronic kidney disease
-aka chronic renal failure
-altered kidney function and diminished GFR for MORE than 3 months
-MCC = diabetes
- final stage is ESRD (end stage renal disease)
-end stage renal disease
-final stage of chronic kidney disease. loss of kidney function leading to significant systemic effects (need dialysis or transplant)
How do you diagnosis someone with CKD? (chronic kidney disease)
-history of DM, HTN, family history
-inc BUN and Creatinine
-protein in urine
How do you treat CKD?
-treat the underlying disease and help prevent further kidney damage (HTN, DM)
-manage cardiovascular risk factors (#1 cause of death)
-renal replacement therapy
What is glomerular disease?
-disease damaging the kidney's filtering untis (glomeruli)
-MCC of ESRD worldwide. (DM,HTN in US)
-have primary and secondary
What is primary Glomerulonephritis?
(linked to what?, 3 ways it can happen?, blah)
- type of glomerular disease
-linked to immune mechanisms (antibody-antigen complexes clump together and get trapped)
-inflammation of glomerulus (autoimmune, filtering toxins, or complexes get trapped)
-Damages cells and basement membrane
-get proliferation of mesangial cells and ECM deposition
-fibrosis and sclerosis
Glomerulonephritis is associated with what 2 syndromes?
Nephritic syndrome = associated with blood (blood in urine, dec GFR, protein in urine, HTN)
Nephrotic syndrome = associated with protein (heavy proteinuria, dec protein in blood, severe edema, lipids in urine)
Why does Nephrotic syndrome cause edema?
-causes more proteins in the urine. this means less proteins in the blood. this changes osmotic pressure and fluids go into the tissues = EDEMA!
how do you diagnosis and treat glomerulonephritis?
Dx: test urine, serum antibody analysis, biopsy kidney
Treat: treat underlying disorder, immune suppressants, plamapheresis/dialysis or transplant (plasma... is like dialysis but filter antibodies?)
What is a UTI? (and symptoms)
-urinary tract infection
-Can have cyctitis (bladder) or urethritis
-symptoms: frequency, urgency, nocturia, pain, stuff in pee, ***mental status change in older adults***
UTI diagnosis and treatment
diagnosis: history, urinalysis, scans for contributing factors
Treatment: antibiotics, inc fluid intake, treat contributing factors
What is pyelonephritis and what are the 2 classifications?
-an inflammation/infection involving the kidney parenchyma and renal pelvis
-can have acute and chronic
What is the difference btwn acute and chronic pyelonephritis?
Acute: usually associated with ascending UTIs
Chronic: tubulointerstitial disorder characterized by inflammation and scarring of the calyces and pelvis (can be caused by reflux, obstructino, abnormalities, or toxins and can lead to ESRD)
What is nephrolithiasis?
-one of the most common urinary tract disorders (more so in men)
-renal calculi or urinary stones made of various materials.
-due to inc blood levels and urinary excretion of the mineral
What are symptoms of nephrolithiasis?
-blood in urine
-similar to UTI
How do you diagnosis and treat nephrolithiasis?
diag: CT, US, X-ray, urinalysis
treat: lots of fluids, pain meds, blast it to break it up or surgery to remove in needed.
What is renal cystic disease?
-lots of cysts (filled with fluid or renal tubular elements) in the kidney that cause a dec in function by causing degeneration of obstruction
-6 categories: polycystic kidney disease (PKD) = most common
-most cysts form from tubular epithelium
**more cysts = more interruption of function!
What is polycystic kidney disease? (PKD)
-most common category of renal cystic disease
-leading cause of ESRD
What is renal cell carcinoma? (RCC)
-risk factors: genetic, smoking, obesity, HTN., job, acquired cystic disease
Bladder cancer (where does it form, risk factors, major symptoms)
-4th leading cause of cancer in men
-majority form in epithelial cells lining bladder
-Risk: SMOKING, job, male........
Functional urinary incontinence
-cannot make it to toilet due to joint or muscle dysfunction increasing the time to get to the bathroom
Stress urinary incontinence
something increases intraabdominal pressure and you pee a little (cough, laugh, lifting)
Urge urinary incontinence
-sudden urge with uncontrolled loss of urine
-stronge contraction of bladder
overflow urinary incontinence
-bladder is over stretched
-constant leaking from a full bladder that is unable to fully empty