Exam 3 - Renal and urologic systems Flashcards Preview

PTH560 Pathology > Exam 3 - Renal and urologic systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 3 - Renal and urologic systems Deck (29):

What is the function of the renal and urologic systems?

*-filter waste products and remove excess fluid from the blood
- control mineral and water balance
- acid-base regulation
- secretion of endocrine hormones
-control arterial pressure
-store and excrete urine


3 locations that can be messed up with urine formation

1- blood flowing into the kidneys
2- blood within the kidney
3- changes in capillary pressures


What is GFR?

-glomerular filtration rate
-(125 ml/min)
-depends on a few things and is a good marker of kidney pathology going on


Acute kidney injury

-aka acute renal failure
-characterized by: rapid dec in GFR, dysregulation of fluid and electrolyte balance, and retention of metabolic waste products with dec urine flow

*temporary injury


Chronic kidney disease

-aka chronic renal failure
-altered kidney function and diminished GFR for MORE than 3 months
-MCC = diabetes
- final stage is ESRD (end stage renal disease)



-end stage renal disease
-final stage of chronic kidney disease. loss of kidney function leading to significant systemic effects (need dialysis or transplant)


How do you diagnosis someone with CKD? (chronic kidney disease)

-history of DM, HTN, family history
-decreased GFR
-inc BUN and Creatinine
-protein in urine


How do you treat CKD?

-treat the underlying disease and help prevent further kidney damage (HTN, DM)
-manage cardiovascular risk factors (#1 cause of death)
-renal replacement therapy


What is glomerular disease?

-disease damaging the kidney's filtering untis (glomeruli)
-MCC of ESRD worldwide. (DM,HTN in US)

-have primary and secondary


What is primary Glomerulonephritis?
(linked to what?, 3 ways it can happen?, blah)

- type of glomerular disease
-linked to immune mechanisms (antibody-antigen complexes clump together and get trapped)
-inflammation of glomerulus (autoimmune, filtering toxins, or complexes get trapped)
-Damages cells and basement membrane
-get proliferation of mesangial cells and ECM deposition
-fibrosis and sclerosis


Glomerulonephritis is associated with what 2 syndromes?

Nephritic syndrome = associated with blood (blood in urine, dec GFR, protein in urine, HTN)

Nephrotic syndrome = associated with protein (heavy proteinuria, dec protein in blood, severe edema, lipids in urine)


Why does Nephrotic syndrome cause edema?

-causes more proteins in the urine. this means less proteins in the blood. this changes osmotic pressure and fluids go into the tissues = EDEMA!


how do you diagnosis and treat glomerulonephritis?

Dx: test urine, serum antibody analysis, biopsy kidney

Treat: treat underlying disorder, immune suppressants, plamapheresis/dialysis or transplant (plasma... is like dialysis but filter antibodies?)


What is a UTI? (and symptoms)

-urinary tract infection
-very common
-Can have cyctitis (bladder) or urethritis
-symptoms: frequency, urgency, nocturia, pain, stuff in pee, ***mental status change in older adults***


UTI diagnosis and treatment

diagnosis: history, urinalysis, scans for contributing factors

Treatment: antibiotics, inc fluid intake, treat contributing factors


What is pyelonephritis and what are the 2 classifications?

-an inflammation/infection involving the kidney parenchyma and renal pelvis

-can have acute and chronic


What is the difference btwn acute and chronic pyelonephritis?

Acute: usually associated with ascending UTIs

Chronic: tubulointerstitial disorder characterized by inflammation and scarring of the calyces and pelvis (can be caused by reflux, obstructino, abnormalities, or toxins and can lead to ESRD)


What is nephrolithiasis?

-one of the most common urinary tract disorders (more so in men)
-renal calculi or urinary stones made of various materials.
-due to inc blood levels and urinary excretion of the mineral


What are symptoms of nephrolithiasis?

-severe pain
-flank pain
-blood in urine
-similar to UTI


How do you diagnosis and treat nephrolithiasis?

diag: CT, US, X-ray, urinalysis

treat: lots of fluids, pain meds, blast it to break it up or surgery to remove in needed.


What is renal cystic disease?

-lots of cysts (filled with fluid or renal tubular elements) in the kidney that cause a dec in function by causing degeneration of obstruction
-fairly common
-6 categories: polycystic kidney disease (PKD) = most common
-most cysts form from tubular epithelium
**more cysts = more interruption of function!
-often asymptomatic


What is polycystic kidney disease? (PKD)

-most common category of renal cystic disease
-genetic disorder
-leading cause of ESRD


What is renal cell carcinoma? (RCC)

-kidney cancer
-risk factors: genetic, smoking, obesity, HTN., job, acquired cystic disease


Bladder cancer (where does it form, risk factors, major symptoms)

-4th leading cause of cancer in men
-majority form in epithelial cells lining bladder
-Risk: SMOKING, job, male........
-need surgery


Functional urinary incontinence

-cannot make it to toilet due to joint or muscle dysfunction increasing the time to get to the bathroom


Stress urinary incontinence

something increases intraabdominal pressure and you pee a little (cough, laugh, lifting)


Urge urinary incontinence

-sudden urge with uncontrolled loss of urine
-stronge contraction of bladder


overflow urinary incontinence

-bladder is over stretched
-constant leaking from a full bladder that is unable to fully empty


Mixed urinary incontinence

combination of more than one
-functional, stress, urge, overflow