Exam 3 - nervous system pathology Flashcards Preview

PTH560 Pathology > Exam 3 - nervous system pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 3 - nervous system pathology Deck (33):
1

Coup and counter coup

coup = initial blow. site of impact

countercoup = opposite site of impact

2

Epidural hematoma

-arterial bleed
-btwn bone and dura
-crescent-shaped on scans

3

Subdural hematoma

-venous bleed
-btwn dura and arachnoid membrane (takes shape of brain)
-*slowly enlarging clot
-*consciousness fluctuates

4

pt has a massive midline shift and follows shape of brain. what bleed is this?

Subdural hematoma

5

TBI 2 phases

phase 1 = rotational forces. (hallmark of TBI)
phase 2 = inflammatory

6

Global hypoxic injury

-not enough oxygen to brain
-cerebral atrophy -> apoptosis of neurons = ****RED NEURONS
-watershed zones infarct

7

What are the signs of a stroke?

FAST!!
-face fallen on one side
-arms - cannot raise
-speech - slurred
-time! to call 911

8

Thrombotic stroke

MCA most common location
-pale infarctions on exam

9

Embolic stroke

-ischemic due to embolus
-aka hemorrhagic stroke (***looks red)

10

intracerebral hemorrhage

-HTN cause stress. get microaneurysms. ruptures. hemorrhage
-basal ganglia

11

Worst headache of life

=berry aneurysm

12

Stepwise progression of stroke symptoms

lacunar infarct

13

Anencephaly

absence of most of brain and skull

14

spina bifida

fetal spinal column doesnt close

15

meningocele

herniation of meninges thru spinal column defect

16

meningomyelocele

herniation of meninges and spinal cord thru spinal column defect

17

Extension of the medulla and cerebellar vermis through the foramen magnum =

Arnold-Chiari malformation

18

partial or complete absence of cerebellar vermis =

Dandy-Walker malformation

19

Syringomyelia

-cyst in spinal cord
-loss of pain and temp sensation in arms and upper pec area

20

MS

-most common demyelinated disease
-Pathogenesis is T helper cell mediated

21

younger to middle aged female comes in with blurry vision and difficulty with urination what auto immune disorder should you be looking for?

MS!!!

22

Pseudotumor cerebri

-idiopathic intracranial HTN
-diagnosis of exclusion
-Edema around optic nerve
Goal: lower CSF pressure

23

Wernicke vs korsakoff

Wernicke = reversible

Korsakoff = irreversible

24

Meningitis

-inflammation of pia mater
- starts with blood infection
-have fever, stiff neck, headache

25

Encephalitis

inflammation of brain parenchyma
-fever, headache, impaired mental status

26

Primary brain tumors in kids vs adults

kids = majority below tentorium cerebelli ***

adults = majority above tentorium cerebelli ***

27

Astrocytoma (kid/adult location)

-most common neuroglial tumor

kids = cerebellum
adults = frontal lobe

28

Glioblastoma

-high grade astrocytoma
-crosses corpus callosum

29

Common cause of new seizures

meningioma

30

Apendymoma (kids/adults location)

adults = cauda equina

kids = fourth ventricle

31

medulloblastoma

-malig
-small cell
-likes to seed the neuroaxis (invade other areas)

32

Oligodendroglioma

-benign
-fried egg cells

33

Lymphoma in CNS majority are

metastatic non-Hodgkins