EXAM #3: ANTIDEPRESSANTS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EXAM #3: ANTIDEPRESSANTS Deck (54):
1

What is the "delay of therapeutic response" in antidepressant therapy?

Weeks to months are required for therapeutic benefit

2

What generally limits the use of antidepressants?

Side effects

3

What is the monoamine/ biogenic amine hypothesis?

Depression is caused by a lack of:
- 5-HT
- NE
- DA

4

What is the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression?

Changes in nerve growth factors play a role in depression

5

What is the mechanism of action of currently available antidepressants?

Increase in 5-HT and/or NE in the synapse

6

What is the general function of neurotrophic factors e.g. BDNF?

"Brain fertilizer" for neuronal growth and survival

7

How do antidepressants alter BDNF?

Increase

8

What is the general mechanism of MAOIs?

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors block the degradation of monoamines (5-HT and NE)

9

What classes of drugs block reuptake of monoamines?

SSRIs
TCAs
SNRIs

****SNRI= 5-HT and NE reuptake inhibitors*****

10

What is the function of autoreceptors on the pre-synaptic terminal?

Agonism of autoreceptors decreases NT release

11

What class of antidepressant is commonly used to treat PTSD?

SSRI

12

What is the role of antidepressants as anxiolytics?

Long-term anti-anxiety effects at LOW doses

13

What class of antidepressants is used commonly to treat chronic pain?

TCAs

14

What is the mechanism of action of the MAOIs?

Antagonism of MAO to increase availability of 5-HT and NE in the synaptic cleft

15

What is the difference between MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitors?

A= Tyramine, NE, 5-HT, and DA

B= DA

16

What is the clinical use of MAOIs?

1) Treatment of resistant depression
2) Atypical depression
3) Anxiety states i.e. social anxiety and panic disorder

17

What are the most common side effects associated with MAOIs?

1) Orthostatic hypotension
2) Weight gain
3) Sexual dysfunction

18

What causes orthostatic hypotension with MAOI use?

Inhibition of alpha-1 receptors in the CNS

19

What is the important food interaction associated with MAOIs?

Tyramine ingestion with MAOIs can cause a hypertensive crisis

(wine and cheese phenomenon)

20

What is the mechanism of action of the tricyclic antidepressants?

Block reuptake of 5-HT and NE by inhibition of SERT and NET

21

How are TCAs used clinically?

1) 2nd line for major depression
2) CHRONIC PAIN (first line)

22

What TCA is used to treat bedwetting? Why?

Imparamine b/c of anticholinergic effects

23

What TCA is used to treat neuropathic pain?

Desipramine

24

What TCA has the most sedative effects?

Amitriptyline

25

What are the side effects of the TCAs?

1) Orthostatic hypotension (elderly = "hip breakers")
2) Delerium in elderly
3) Sexual dysfunction
4) Cardiac toxicity--> LETHAL CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA

26

What are the 3 Cs of TCA overdose?

- Convulsions
- Coma
- Cardiac arrhythmia

27

What is the mechanism of action of the SSRIs?

Selective inhibition of SERT; block 5-HT reuptake into the pre-synaptic terminal

28

What is the clinical use of SSRIs?

First line for depression

29

What is important to remember clinically about SSRIs?

Much safer than MAOIs or TCAs

30

What are the short term side effects of SSRIs?

Nausea
Dyspepsia
Diarrhea

31

What are the long-term side effects of SSRIs?

Sexual Dysfunction*

*Number 1 reason to switch SSRIs*

32

What precipitates Serotonin Syndrome with SSRIs?

1) Combination use with other antidepressants
2) Switching SSRIs (allow time for previous drug to clear)

33

What is Serotonin Syndrome?

Classically, a triad of:
1) mental status changes
2) autonomic hyperactivity
3) neuromuscular abnormalities

34

What is SSRI Discontinuation Syndrome?

Sudden d/c of short half-life SSRIs can can cause adverse effects in some patients in 1-7 days of cessation

35

How do SNRIs differ from TCAs?

SNRIs and TCAs both inhibit SERT and NET, but SNRIs have much LESS AFFINITY for other receptors i.e. have less side effects

36

What is the mechanism of Venlafaxine?

1) Major: SERT inhibitor
2) Minor: NET inhibitor

37

What is the clinical indication for Venlafaxine?

Severe depression

38

What is the mechanism of action of Duloxetine?

Balanced 5-HT and NE reuptake blockade

39

What is Duloxetine inidicated for?

Increasingly prescribed for chronic pain over TCAs

40

What is the mechanism of action of Trazadone?

H1 receptor antagonist

41

What is Trazadone indicated for?

Unlabeled hypnotic i.e. treatment for insomnia

42

What is the major side effect associated with Trazodone?

Priapism

43

What is the mechanism of action of Buproprion?

1) Blocks NE and DA reuptake
2) Increases presynaptic release of catecholamines

44

What is Bupropion indicated for?

1) Major depression
2) Smoking cessation

45

What is the mechanism of action of Mirtazapine?

1) Alpha-2 blocker
2) Increases release of 5-HT and NE
3) H1 blocker
4) 5-HT2 and 3 blocker

46

What do you need to remember about prescribing MAOIs, TCAs, and SSRIs?

DO NOT COMBINE--can be FATAL

47

What antidepressants are potent CYP2D6 inhibitors?

- Paroxetine
- Fluoxetine
- Fluvoxamine

48

What is the drug of choice for Bipolar Disorder?

Lithium

49

What anticonvulsants are used to treat Bipolar Disorder?

Valproic acid
Carbamazepine

50

What is the clinical utility of Lithium?

Maintenance treatment

51

What is the clinical utility of Valproic acid and Carbamazepine?

Treatment of acute mania

52

What is the mechanism of action of Lithium?

Stabilization of the postsynaptic membrane

53

What are the side effects of Lithium?

1) Tremor
2) Hypothyroidism
3) Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
4) Skin reactions

54

What is the important drug interaction to remember with Lithium?

Thiazide and loop diuretics diminish Li+ clearance; thus, combination therapy can cause Lithium toxicity

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