EXAM #3: DRUGS OF ABUSE Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > EXAM #3: DRUGS OF ABUSE > Flashcards

Flashcards in EXAM #3: DRUGS OF ABUSE Deck (33):
1

What is the hallmark of drug addiction?

Compulsive drug use

2

What is the basic definition of physical dependence?

Dependence is when the drug is necessary for normal physiologic function

3

What is the hallmark of physical dependence with drug cessation?

Withdrawal

4

Generally, what withdrawal symptoms with drug cessation?

The OPPOSITE effects of the drug

5

What three factors confer a high degree of relapse in addicts?

1) Re-exposure to the drug
2) Exposure to contextual cues
3) Stress

6

What brain system are activated by all addictive drugs?

Mesolimbic dopamine system

7

What is pharmacokinetic tolerance?

Increased drug metabolism resulting in tolerance

8

What is pharmacodynamic tolerance? What are the mechanisms of pharmacodynamic tolerance?

CNS response to chronic drug use:
- Desensitiziation
- Down-regulation of drug receptors
- Internalization of receptors

9

What are the psychological manifestations of withdrawal?

- Dysphoria
- Depression
- Anxiety
- Craving
- Psychosis

10

What region of the brain is involved in the reward pathway?

Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA)

11

What four areas does the VTA project to?

1) Amygdala
2) Nucleus Accumbens
3) Prefrontal cortex
4) Hippocampus

12

What are the three drug "targets" in the VTA?

1) Gi GPRCs that inhibit GABA
2) Ionotropic DA receptors
3) DA uptake transporter (inhibition)

13

What drugs act on Gi GABA GPRCs in the VTA?

1) Opioids
2) THC
3) GHB

14

What drugs act on DA ionotropic receptors in the VTA?

1) Benzodiazepines
2) Nicotine
3) Ethanol

15

What drugs block DA transporters in the VTA?

1) Cocaine
2) Amphetamine
3) Ecstasy

16

What is the RR of addiction to CNS depressants?

3

17

What type of elimination kinetics does alcohol follow?

Zero-order i.e. a constant amount of alcohol is eliminated per unit of time

18

Is the half-life of alcohol dependent on dose?

Yes e.g. 5 drinks= 5 hours to eliminate vs. 10 drinks = 10 hours to eliminate

19

What is the first step in alcohol metabolism?

Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH)

20

What drug is used to treat methonal and ethylene glycol poisoning? What is the MOA of this drug?

Fomepizole--inhibits ADH i.e. Alcohol Dehydrogenase

21

What is the second step in alcohol metabolism?

Aldehyde Dehydrogenase

22

What drug blocks Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH)? What is this drug used for?

Disulfram-- causes acetaldehyde to accumulate and causes unpleasant side effects

23

How many drinks does it take to put the average adult over the legal limit to drive?

2-4 drinks/hour

24

What general class of drugs should not be combined with alcohol for fear or potentially fatal side effects?

CNS depressants i.e. Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, Marijuana

25

What is Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome?

Neurological condition associated with B1 deficiency in combination with excessive alcohol consumption

26

What are the symptoms of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome?

1) Ocular disturbance
2) Changes in mental status
3) Memory impairment
4) Movement difficulties

27

What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)?

Teratogenic disorder seen in children borne to alcoholic mothers

*****Note that there is NO safe level of alcohol consumption in pregnancy*****

28

What are the symptoms of FAS?

1) Mental retardation
2) Hyperactivity
3) Antisocial behavior

29

What is the progression of liver pathology seen in chronic alcoholism?

1) Fatty liver
2) Alcoholic hepatitis
3) Liver cirrhosis
4) Liver failure

30

What is the most common two-drug combination that results in death?

Cocaethylene

31

What is cocaethylene

Liver metabolizes alcohol and cocaine--product is Cocaethylene

32

What are the two drugs that are used to treat chronic alcoholism?

1) Disulfiram
2) Naltrexone

33

What is the mechansim of action of Naltrexone in alcohol abuse?

Blocks reinforcing properties of alcohol

****Note that this is an OPAITE antagonist*****

Decks in Pharmacology Class (64):