EXAM #3: DRUGS OF ABUSE II Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > EXAM #3: DRUGS OF ABUSE II > Flashcards

Flashcards in EXAM #3: DRUGS OF ABUSE II Deck (41):
1

What are the two most commonly abused Benzodiazepines?

1) Diazepam (Valium)
2) Alprazolam (Xanax)

2

What is Flunitrazepam?

Rohypnol i.e. the date rape drug

3

What is Flumazenil?

Benzodiazepine receptor antagonist

4

What Barbiturate is commonly abused?

Pentobarbital

5

How does the abuse of Pentobarbital compare to the Benzodiazepines?

- Not as common
- Lower margin of safety

6

What is the MOA of reward seen with Benzodiazepine and Barbiturate drugs?

1) Increased frequency/ duration of opening of GABA Cl- channels
2) GABA-A receptors are located on GABAnergic neurons in the VTA

Net result is dis-inhibition and activation of mesolimbic reward pathway.

7

What is Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB)?

CNS depressant that has been used as a date rape drug

8

What is the MOA of GHB?

Disinhibition of GABA-B receptors in the VTA

9

List the five common psychostimulants.

1) Cocaine
2) Amphetamine
3) Methamphetamine
4) Methylphenidate
5) MDMA

10

What is the trade name of Methylphenidate?

Ritalin

11

What is the RR of addiction with the psychostimulants?

5

12

What endogenous chemical do the psychostimulants mimic?

NE

13

What drug has the strongest psychological dependence of any drug?

Cocaine

14

What is cocaethylene?

Cocaine and alcohol mixed--this is the metabolite made in the liver

15

What is cocaethylene associated with?

- Intensification of cocaine's euphoric effects
- Most common fatal two-drug combination

16

What amphetamine derivative is most commonly abused? Why?

Methamphetamine
- Can easily be burned/smoked

17

What are the side effects seen with methamphetamine use?

Sympathomimetic
- Mydriasis
- Tachycardia
- HTN

18

What is the MOA of MDMA (ecstacy)?

1) Blocks SERT transporters (5-HT)
2) Causes the release of 5-HT from presynaptic neurons

19

What are the long-term effects of MDMA use in regards to 5-HT?

Can cause permanent 5-HT depletion

20

What toxicity is associated with MDMA?

Acute hyperthermia and dehydration

21

What phenotype is produced by long-term abuse of psychostimulants?

Toxic psychosis that cannot be distinguished from paranoid schizophrenia

22

What is another name for a Psychedelic?

Hallucinogen

23

List the drugs categorized as Psychedelics.

1) Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
2) Psilocybin
3) Ketamine
4) Phencyclidine

24

What is the RR of addiction seen with the Psychedelics?

1

25

What is the MOA of LSD and Psilocybin?

- Glutamate release
- 5-HT2A agonist

****Gq-->Ip3--> increased Ca++ that causes glutamate release*****

26

What is correlated with increased hallucinogen potency?

5-HT2 affinity

27

Do LSD and Psilocybin activate the mesolimbic DA pathway?

NO--thus, low risk for addiction and no withdrawal syndrome

28

What is the MOA of Ketamine and PCP?

NMDA antagonists that decrease activity of:
- Cortex
- Limbic system

29

What is the RR of opioid addiction?

4

30

What are the most commonly abused opioids?

1) Codeine
2) Heroin
3) Morphine
4) Oxycodone

31

What is the MOA of euphoria seen with opioid use?

1) Activation of mu-opioid receptors
2) Inhibition of GABAergic neurons in the VTA= disinhibition of VTA DA neurons

32

What is the effect of kappa-opioid receptor agonism?

Dysphoria

33

What is Naloxone used to treat?

Opioid receptor antagonist used to treat opioid overdose

34

What drug is used to treat opioid withdrawal and addiction?

Methadone

35

What drug is used as maintenance therapy in opioid addiction?

Naltrexone

36

What is the active substance found in marijuana?

THC

37

What is Dronabinol?

Synthetic THC

38

What is Dronabinol used for clinically?

Chronic pain

39

What is the RR of cannabinoid addiction?

2

40

What is the MOA of THC?

Blocks GABA-A receptors on DA neurons in the VTA

41

What is the mechanism of nictone addiction?

NAChR activation results in DA release in:
- Nucleus accumbens
- PFC

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