EXAM #4: HERBAL Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > EXAM #4: HERBAL > Flashcards

Flashcards in EXAM #4: HERBAL Deck (30):
1

What advice should you give patients on how to choose nutrient supplements?

Select supplements that:
1) Have been studied in clinical trials
2) Independently tested e.g.
- USP
3) Standardized

2

What are two evidence-based resources to use in evaluating supplements?

1) Natural medicines
2) NIH Office of Dietary Supplements

3

Why are there conflicting results regarding many supplements?

- Lack of large clinical randomized trials
- Varying drug doses and formulations

4

What is the intended clinical use of Echinacea?

Decrease duration and intensity of cold

5

What is the MOA of Echinacea in reducing the duration and intensity of a cold?

1) Increases cytokine production
2) Anti-inflammatory by inhibiting COX
3) Increased immunological blood cells produced

6

What supplement increased immune system activity?

Echinacea

Thus, patients that are being immunosuppressed should NOT take this medication

7

What are the intended clinical uses of Ginkgo biloba?

1) Improve memory
2) Treat/prevent AD
3) Treat/prevent PVD

8

What is the mechanism by which Gingko biloba prevents cognitive decline?

- Increases density of 5-HT1A receptors
- Increased receptor density may lead to increased cognitive function

9

What harmful side effect is associated with Gingko Biloba?

1) Anti-platelet effects/ bleeding
2) Uncooked seeds can INDUCE SEIZURES

*Patients that are seizure prone should avoid Gingko*

10

What is the intended clinical uses of garlic?

1) Atherosclerosis
2) High cholesterol
3) HTN

11

What is the MOA of garlic in lowering blood pressure?

1) ACE inhibitor
2) Increased NO bioavailbility
3) Increased H2S production

*Decrease vasoconstriction and enhance vasodilation*

12

What adverse reaction is associated with garlic?

Increased bleeding

*D/c garlic 7x days prior to elective surgery*

13

What is the intended clinical use of Ginseng?

Boost overall health/stamina and immune performance

E.g. treatment of fatigue in cancer

14

What major side effect is associated with Ginseng?

- CNS stimulation i.e. should be avoided in:
1) Seizure prone patients
2) Patients prone to MANIA
- Anti-platelet effects

15

What is the intended clinical use of Milk Thistle (Silymarin)?

Prevention/ treatment of liver disease

16

What is the intended clinical use of St. John's Wort?

Antidepressant

17

What is the MOA of St. John's Wort as an antidepressant?

Inhibits the reuptake of DA, NE, and 5-HT

*Generally, it acts like a SSRI*

18

What major side effect is associated with St. John's Wort?

CYP induction that decreases the serum concentrations of other drugs

19

What is the intended clinical use of Saw Palmetto?

Treatment of BPH

20

What is the MOA of Saw Palmetto in the treatment of BPH?

- Inhibits 5-a reductase
- Prevents Testosterone conversion to DHT
- Blocks DHT induced growth of the prostate

21

What is the intended clinical use of Glucosamine and Chondroitin?

Osteoarthritis

22

What drug-drug interaction is associated with Glucosamine and Chondroitin?

Enhanced anticoagulant effects of Warfarin

23

What is the intended clinical use of Melatonin?

Sleep-aid/ treatment of insomnia

24

What is Ramelteon?

Rx melatonin receptor agonist

25

What major adverse effect is associated with Melatonin?

Depress reproductive system function
- Reduced sperm quality
- Decreased LH levels

26

What is the intended clinical use of Butterbur?

Migraines

27

What is the intended clinical use of Feverfew?

Migraines

28

What are the intended clinical uses of CoQ10?

1) Reduction of statin-induced myopathy
2) HTN
3) CAD
4) Neurodegenerative Disease
5) Migraines

29

List the supplements that increase the risk of bleeding in patients on warfarin.

- Ginkgo biloba
- Garlic
- Ginseng
- Glucosamine and Chondrioitin
- Feverfew
- CoQ10

30

What drugs should NOT be used in patients on immune suppressants?

Echinacea
Ginseng

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