EXAM #4: ANTIBIOTICS IV Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EXAM #4: ANTIBIOTICS IV Deck (34):
1

For a skin infection, what are good first choice drugs?

1st generation cephalosporin
- Treats gram positive organisms that commonly cause infection

2

What are good alternatives for uncomplicated skin infections with hypersensitivty?

Vancomycin or Clindamycin

3

What is a good first choice drug for a complicated skin infection?

Ticarcillin and a lactamase inhibitor i.e. clavulanate

*Note that Ticarcillin has anti-pseudomonal activity

4

What three drugs are good options for MRSA skin infection?

1) Vancomycin
2) Linezolid
3) Daptomycin

5

What causes uncomplicated skin infection?

S. aureus
S. pyogenes

6

What causes complicated skin infections?

- E. coli
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa

7

In bone and joint infections, what are good first line emperic agents?

Vanocmycin and 3rd/4th generation cephalosporins

8

What is being targeted by Vancomycin and 3rd/4th generation cephalosporins?

Cell wall inhibitors

9

What is a good abx option for bone and joint infection post-op?

Ticracillin + Clavulanate

10

What is a good abx for septic arthritis?

Cetftriaxone

11

What is a good first choice abx for acute sinusitis and chronic bronchitis?

Augmentin i.e. amoxicillin and clavulanate

12

What abx can be used to treat pharyngitis? Why?

PCN--pharyngitis is more often caused by gram positive bacteria that are covered by PCN

13

What are the three main organisms that cause URIs?

S. pneumoniae
H. influenza
Moraxella catarrhalis

14

What bacterium causes pharyngitis?

S. pneumoniae (gram +) covered by PCN

15

From a microbioloical perspective, what is unique about the bacteria that cause pneumonia?

Mycoplasma pneumonia does NOT have a peptidoglycan cell wall; thus, Beta-Lactams won't work

16

What is the drug of choice to treat ambulatory pneumonia?

Macrolides i.e. erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin

17

How does the treatment change for a patient with pneumonia that has to be hospitalized?

Macrolide + Beta-Lactam

18

What is the treatment of choice for nosocomial pneumonia?

Ceftriaxone

19

What is the treatment of choice for uncomplicated UTI?

TMP-SMX

20

What is the most common cause of uncomplicated UTI?

E. coli

21

How is uncomplicated pyelonephritis treated?

TMP-SMX
Fluoroquinolones

22

How does the treatment of complicated UTIs differ from uncomplicated?

It doesn't i.e.
- TMP-SMX
- Fluoroquinolone

23

What is the treatment of choice for intra-abdominal infections?

Ticracillin and clavulanate

24

What type of bacteria typically cause intra-abdominal infections?

Gram negative

25

How is C. diff treated?

1) Metronidazole (moderate)
- C. diff is anaerobic
- Metronidazole releases ROS
- Induces DNA damage

2) Vancomycin (severe)

26

What antibiotic is highly implicated in the pathogenesis of C. diff?

Clindamycin

27

What are the drug choices for community acquired bacterial meningitis for patients older than 2 y/o?

1) 3rd and 4th generation Cephalosporins
- Ceftriaxone
- Cefotaxime
2) Vancomycin

28

What drugs as used to treat neonatal meningitis?

1) Ampicillin
2) Cephalosporin
3) +/- Gentamicin

29

What is the rationale for using Gentamicin in neonatal meningitis?

L. monocytogenes (under cooked meat/ lunch meat consumed by the Mom) is a cause--best covered by Gentamicin

30

What is the initial treatment approach to treating Sepsis?

1) 3rd/4th generation cephalosporin i.e. Cefepime
2) Vancomycin

31

What is the best approach to treated Endocarditis?

1) Ceftriaxone
2) Vancomycin

32

What are the best empiric antibiotics used to treat neutropenic fever?

Ciprofloxacin + Amoxacillin/Clavulanate (Augmentin)

33

What drugs are used to treat enterococci infections?

1st- note that enterococci infections are notirous for resistance; thus,
- Daptomycin
- Tigacycline

34

How are gram-negative antibiotic resistant organisms treated?

1) Carbapenam
- Imipenem
- Meropenem
2) Carbapenemases
- Polymyxin B
- Tigecycline

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