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Flashcards in Exam 4 senior year Deck (119):
1

referred to as a unit, sum of the total of the changes that normally take place from brith to death

growth and development

2

an increase of # and size of cells resulting in overall increase of size and weight of the whole or any any parts

growth

3

changes that are due to genetic inheritance

maturation

4

referes to the predictable physiological, psysiological, psychosocial and cognitive chnges occuring over ones life span

development

5

cephalocaudal

head to toe
head developes first then trunk, and last the legs

6

proximodistal

near to far
from central axis of body to extremities

7

is development unique for each child

yes all grow at each individuals own pace

8

is development interrelated

yes physiological, psychosocial, gognitice and moral aspects of development are affected by one another

9

is developemnt differentiated

yes, growth becomes more specific and skillful as a child grows

10

Erikson

psychosocial development, during each stage there is a crisis to be resolved and a virtue to be fained. according to erikson, failure to properly master each step leads to problems in the future

11

Piaget

Cognitive Development, process by which developing individuals become acquainted with the world and the objects it contains
(sensorimotor 0-2ys, preoperational (2-4), cognitive thought phase (4-7), concrete operational (7-11/12), formal operations ( 11/12 & older))

12

Kohlberg

Moral reasoning, moral development is based on cognitive development and consists of three major levels
preconventional level
conventional level
post conventional level

13

wernickes area

reason and process language

14

how do we hear

hear at the primary auditory cortex to wenickies area to Brocas to primary motor cortex

15

Fowler

Spiritual development, 7 stages that are closely associated with cognitive and psycnosocial development

16

group of 2 or more people birth or adopted or marriage in the same home

Family

17

Developmental theory (Duval)

8 stages starting at beginning family ending with families in later years, this theory assesses a families current stage and ability to accomplish the tasks of that particular stage

18

Family stress theory

examines how families deal with normative and nonnormative stress

19

Family systems theory

views family as a system where all family members interace interdependently with one another. emphasizes family elements and the processes existing within and between families and their various enviornments

20

stage 1 of developmental theory

marriage and independent home
make decisions about parenthood

21

stage 2 of developmental theory

families with infants
parent infant attachment

22

stage 3 of developmental theory

families with preschoolers
socialize children, parent/child adjust to seperation

23

stage 4 of developmental theory

families with school children
child est peer relationships

24

stage 5 of developmental theory

families with teenagers
increase autonomy

25

stage 6 of developmental theory

families as launching centers
renegotiate marital relationships

26

stage 7 of developmental theory

middle age families
deal with disbilities and death, regain relationships with grandparents/in laws
bridging the gap, grandparenting

27

stage 8 of developmental theory

aging families
shift from work to retirement

28

married couple with biolgical children

traditional (nuclear)

29

married couple with biological and step/adopted/foster children

nuclear

30

mother or father with child or children

single parent from divorce death or unmarried woman

31

joint custody

bi-nuclear

32

mother and or father with children are divoreced and remary (now have step children)

reconstitued or step family (brady bunch)

33

grandmother/father, mother/father, children

extended

34

multiple mates

polygamous

35

share a common property, share child rearing

communal

36

authoritarian (dictatorial)

child can be very dependent, low self esteem, akward in society

37

permissive or laissez faire

rearely punished, kids control parents

38

authoritative or democratic

rules for a reason, coundries are realistic and explained, well balanced

39

native americans

*issues with alcoholism, pverty, poor health/hygine, smoking, skin ca, maternal morbidity is higher
*family, spirits, nature are important
*herbal/natural remedies, rituals for safe delivery/baby
*wont braid hair when pregnant
*home birth/midwife, only women allowed
*breast feed, recovery is quick after child birth

40

white americans

*technology based, father involvement
*future orientation
*L&D hospital, MD in charge
*postpartum is stressful mult roles

41

arab americans

*the more intrusive the procedure the more confidnet they feel
*having children will increase status of parents, wont tell about past Hx
*present day thinking
*L&D only women, very vocal, dont want help

42

Hispanic americans

*traditions, father has last say
*issues lack of health care, prenatal care
*miscarriage rate high, heavy babies, hot/cold, dont do renantal bc of hot/cold
*colestrum is seen as dirty, avoid moonlight, sleep on backs (bad bc decrease cirulation to fetus)
*present day oriented
*Muneco: braided cord placed under breast, modest, usually only women
*cuarentena: 40 days after birth restricted :baths, foods, sex
*baby usually not circumsized
*believe in umbillical binders

43

black americans

moms lead families, family is important
*considered a state of wellness
*present and future orienteation
*cravings of gravies and hot sauce, PICA
*dont reach over head, dont want pictures taken
*L&D many women involved

44

Filipino American

*family, eye contact are important
*shampoo hair, keeps baby clean
*no sex or it will harm baby

45

asian american

*balance
*quiet, prefer female MD or midwifes, natural births, modest
*avoid bathing, esp perineal area
*no chores for 30 days-3 months, Viet wont touch babies head, no praise or eye contact keep evil spirits away

46

orthodox judaism

religion, koiser, sundown friday to sundown sunday dont do anything
*hospitalization during sabbath: writing and electrical cant be done, koisher diet
*L&D fully covered, no pysical contact during labor
*naming ceremony, circum done by Rhabi

47

Tribal african women

female circum (preadolecence) may have scar tissue

48

what to do when cultural beliefs bary from practices

dont judge, safety is #1, compromise if able

49

process by whilch children acquire the beliefs, values, behaviors of a given society in order to function within that group

socialization

50

what is the #1 influence on health

socioeconomic status

51

pais

latin for child

52

goal of pediatric nursing

assit the child to reach adulthood in the best state of physical, emotional and social development that is poosible for him/her to achieve

53

what is key in pediatrics

promotion and prevention

54

in the middle ages up to 1800 children were considered infants until when

they were 6, then they were put to work, children died bc lack of hygine, illness/injury

55

baby farms

90-100 death rate

56

work laws for children came into effect

1800's

57

Father of Peds

Abraham Jacobi, 1853, childrens aid society formed in NY

58

Lillian Wald

1st full time RN, henry street settlement NY

59

Whilte house conference on children

started in 1909 by FDR, held every 10 years

60

Childrens bureau

1912, first study on infant mortality

61

fair labor standards

1938

62

WIC

1974

63

FMLA

1993, 12 weeks unpaid leave, to care for NB/adopteve child

64

childhood mortality that is unintentional

males more likely, south west due to being outside and the extreme heat and being more darring

65

the prevalence of specific illness in the population at a particular time

morbidity

66

childhood mortaility

under one airway issues
1-19 MVC #1

67

Major developmental task for the early adult is

form an intense lasting relationship or a commitment to another person, cause, an institution or a creative effort

68

if a child does not achieve the exptected pschosocial developmental task, what specific characteristics would you see in this person as an adult?

lack of est vocation, prejudices against others, emotional distance in all relationships, dependency on parents, partner or both

69

erikson stage for early adult

intimacy vs isolation

70

Piaget stage for adult

formal operations stage, wisdom and experience begin to develop

71

major developmental tasks for adult

mutual love and respect between 2 people

72

desired basic strength of adult

love

73

erikson stage for middle adult

generatively vs self absorbtion stagnation (30-65 yr)
strengths: production and care
significant relationships are within the workplace, the community and the family.

74

Major developmental task for the middle adult

achieve the life goals est for oneself while also considering the welfare of future generations

75

late adult hood

integrity vs despair
65-death
basic strenth: wisdom

76

major developmental tasks for late adulthood

review ones life and derive meaning from both positive and negative events, while achieving a positive sense of self

77

Adolescent

12-18
Identity vs. Role confusion
Formal operations stage (piaget)
Post-conventional stage (Kohlberg)
primary and secondary sex characteristics
rapid growth=increase nutritional requirements
#1 cause of death=MVC
dont lecture, ensure privacy, show concern, open ended ?'s, start with less sensitive information first

78

School age

6-12
Ugly duckling
Industry vs. inferiority
Conventional level (Kohlberg)
concrete operational stage (piaget)
starts with shedding of first deciduous tooth ends at puberty with getting permanent teeth
growth is slow and steady, girls faster than boys
weight 4.506.5 lbs /yr, height 2 inches /yr
perfectionist, may steal, makes common use of tools
Good boy/girl, obey law bc its the law
team play, rules and rituals
peer group provides security as they gain independence from parents
clubs, bullying, teasing, relationships with family are important, lie/cheat/steal
safety/injury prevention: proper use of seatbelts, educate about drugs
spiritual development: concrete terms, heaven vs hell

79

cognitive development: concrete operational stage charachertistics

classification
conservation
reversibility
seviation

80

ability to recoginze that actions can move in reverse order

reversibility

81

the ability to order objects with respect to a common property

seviation

82

certain aspects of a object can change but it still stays the same object

conservation

83

group of objects put into categories

classification

84

preschool

3-5 yrs
average weight gain 5lbs/yr, height 3 inches/yr
Initiative vs. guilt
origional and purposeful activities, exercise self control
ride tricycle, throws ball overhand, ties shoelaces
instrumental realistic orientation (kohlberg, moral)
intuitive thought phase (piaget, cognitive)
egocentrism, animisn, centration
vocab increases dramativally, imitate parents and siblings
questioning at its peak, "lives by rules", talk alot
fears (monsters etc.), masturbation is normal, gender roles
spiritual ideas are concrete (know simple bible stories)
associative play (imitative, imaginative, dramatic)
Imaginary playmates (normal)
pseudo independence (think they can do it all)

85

egocentrism

understand experiences only from their point of view

86

animism

they believe that objects have conciousness (stars twinkle bc they are happy)

87

centration

focusing on one aspect of a task and ignorning other aspects of the tasks (conservation)

88

Toddler

12-36 months
Terrible twos
Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt
Preconventional level Punishment and obedience orientation (stage 1 moral development)
Cognitive development: tertiary circular reactions and mental combinations
weight 4-6lbs/yr, height 3 inches/yr
squat, pot bellied, bow legged
walks without help, uses cup, rotates spoon, goes up and down stairs, drawing holds crayon with fingers rather than fist, jumps both feet
works to develop independnce and start to learn they can do some things on own
uses no even while agreeing to request, tolerates seperation from parent, security blanket, talks incessantly, gives 1st and last name, stage parallel play, no reguard for right and left
imitation and fantacy
limit setting, behavior modication, temper tantrums, toilet teaching

89

infant

birth to 12 months
trust vs mistrust
preconventional morality (egocentric judgement
sensory motor stage (piaget) object permance
rapid growth 1-1 1/2 lbs per month, height 1/2-1"/month
anterior fontanel closes by 12-18 months
back to sleep, prone when playing
turn head from side to side one month
walks with one hand held 12 months
immunizations,

90

Heb B

birth, one month, 6-18 months

91

Rota

6-14 weeks, common in winter months

92

Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (DTaP)

2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15-18 months, 4-6 years

93

Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib)

not flu shot, 2 months, 4 months, 6 months 12 months

94

Polio

2 months, 4 months, 6 months, boster at 4-6 years

95

MMR

12-15 months, 4-6 years

96

Varicella (chxpox)

12-18 months, booster 4-6 years

97

pneumococcal (PCV)

2, 4, 6, 12 months

98

inactivated influenza

6-23 months of age

99

HPV

11-12 girls

100

deciduous teeth for 1st 2 years of age

age of child in months -6= # of teeth
8 months -6= 2 teeth

101

use of pacifier

not for 1st NB month

102

thumb sucking peaks at

18-20 months

103

S/sx of teething

fever, drooling, chew/suck on fingers/objects, irritable, fussy, diff. sleeping

104

Nutrition for infant

breast mile for 6 months, no cows milk, no soild food until age 4-6 months (bc immature GI system), introduce one food at a time

105

extrusion reflex

babies push food right out of the mouth, normal

106

introduction to solid foods in order

iron fortified infant cereal (5-6 months)
fruit juice
veggies
fruits
meats
egg yolks
table foods

107

family day care

licensed, take care of children in their home, up to 5 children for part of a day

108

center based care

commercial based, provide care for 6 or more children for 6 or more hours

109

manner of thinking , behaving or reacting characteristic of an individual or the way in which a person deals with life

temperment

110

fit of mother and child

degree of fit

111

stranger fear

1st 6 months attached to caregivers, around 6 months start to fear strangers, this is normal

112

separation anxiety

4-8 months begin to realize that the parent/caregiver can leave them
11-12 months able to anticiapte parent/caregiver getting ready to leave

113

infant play

solitary play

114

what is a major cause of death during infancy

injuries: aspiration, suffocation, MVC, falls, poisoning, burns, drowning

115

when does the anterior fontanel close

12-18 months

116

active immunity

if you have gotten it or a vaccine for it

117

passive immunity

temporary transfer of immunity from mom to baby via placenta in 3rd trimester (lasts about 3 months)

118

physiologic anorexia

child may eat large amounts of food one day and then not eat the next. due to imitation of another person refusing to eat, none apetizing food, plate is overwhelming

119

how much food should a toddler get

one Tbsp of soild food for each year of age (serving size of 1/4-1/3 that of an adult)