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Flashcards in Exercise physiology Deck (39)
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1

How many calories do men an women have to have a day ?

2,550 per day ( men )


1,940 per day ( women )

2

What does a balanced diet contain ?

55 % Carbs
15 % protein
30 % fats

3

What are carbohydrates ?

Sugars and starches stored in the body as glycogen and converted to fuel energy productions

fuels 75 % of energy requirements

4

Glycogen ?

Provide aerobic and anaerobic energy production

Marathon runners and long distance athletes

5

Protein ?

Biological catalysts which increases chemical reactions

Repair muscle cells and tissues and make haemoglobin

broken down into energy aerobically if no energy available

6

Fats ?

Energy production

Insulate nerves and provide energy storage

broken down into aerobic energy and twice the yield of carbohydrates

7

Saturated fats ?

type of molecule typically solid found in animal production

Should be limited to reduce cardio vascular disease

8

unsaturated fats ?

Type of molecule which is often liquid

boosts oxygen delivery , improving endurance and recovery

9

minerals ?

improves bodily functions

helps bone and tooth health , controlling bodily fluids , breaking down and releasing energy

Calcium
iron
phosphorus

10

Vitamins

Vital essential organic nutrients required in small quantities to maintain body functions

11

Fibre ?

Reduces cholesterol , risk of diabetes and obesity

12

Water ?

Two thirds of the body weight an to allow chemical reactions and dissolve more substances
Dehydration could lead to decreased plasma volume , stroke volume and increased heart rate and endurance will suffer

13

What is energy expenditure ?

The sum of basal metabolic rate , the thermic effect of food and the energy expended through physical activity

14

What is BMR ?

The minimum amount of energy required to sustain essential physiological function at rest

15

What aspects must be considered to understand individuals energy requirement ?

Age
Weight
Height
Size

16

What is Thermic effect of food ?

The energy required to eat , digest and absorb an use food taken in

17

What is physical activity energy expenditure ?

The total number of calories required to perform daily tasks

18

Metabolic equivalent value ?

The ratio of a performers working metabolic rate to their resting metabolic rate

19

What is energy balance ?

the relationship between energy intake and energy expenditure

If energy intake matches energy expenditure , weight maintained
If energy intake is greater than energy expenditure , weight will be gained
If energy intake is less than energy expenditure the weight will be lost

20

What are ergogenic aids ?

a substance , object or method used to improve or enhance performance

21

What are phrenological aids ?

a group of ergogenic aids to increase the levels of hormones or neural transmitters naturally produced by the body

22

Anabolic steroids ?

A group of illegal synthetic hormones resembling testosterone to promote protein synthesis for muscle growth , recovery and repair


Sprinters and explosive players use the drugs

23

Negatives of anabolic steroids ?

testes shrink
sperm count decease
hair loss
breast tissue development
heart failure
acne

24

EPO ?

Naturally produced hormone responsible for the production of red blood cells.
Increases oxygen delivery transport , aerobic capacity
Haemoglobin count increase , intensity and duration
Long distance performers

Difficult to detect

25

Negatives of EPO ?

Decrease cardiac output
risk of blood clots
heart failure
Viscosity of blood

26

Human growth hormone ?

synthetic product copying natural growth hormone , to increase protein synthesis for muscle growth , recovery and repair
Mass and strength
increased metabolism
Increased glucose levels

Explosive based power athletes

27

Risks of Human growth hormone ?

Abnormal bone and muscle development
enlargement of vital organs
increase risk of cancer

28

Intermittent hypoxic training ?

Where the performers live at sea level but train under hypoxic

Increased adaption of environment
Increase red blood cells
haemoglobin count increase
Increase mitochondria
increase intensity

29

Risks of IHT ?

Any benefit lost
May lose motivation
hard to reach normal rates
decrease immune function
Dehydration

30

Cooling aids ?

A range of products to reduce core temperatures

Reduce swelling , dehydration, cramp , dizziness