Flashcards in Exercise physiology Deck (39)
How many calories do men an women have to have a day ?
2,550 per day ( men )
1,940 per day ( women )
What does a balanced diet contain ?
55 % Carbs
15 % protein
30 % fats
What are carbohydrates ?
Sugars and starches stored in the body as glycogen and converted to fuel energy productions
fuels 75 % of energy requirements
Provide aerobic and anaerobic energy production
Marathon runners and long distance athletes
Biological catalysts which increases chemical reactions
Repair muscle cells and tissues and make haemoglobin
broken down into energy aerobically if no energy available
Insulate nerves and provide energy storage
broken down into aerobic energy and twice the yield of carbohydrates
Saturated fats ?
type of molecule typically solid found in animal production
Should be limited to reduce cardio vascular disease
unsaturated fats ?
Type of molecule which is often liquid
boosts oxygen delivery , improving endurance and recovery
improves bodily functions
helps bone and tooth health , controlling bodily fluids , breaking down and releasing energy
Vital essential organic nutrients required in small quantities to maintain body functions
Reduces cholesterol , risk of diabetes and obesity
Two thirds of the body weight an to allow chemical reactions and dissolve more substances
Dehydration could lead to decreased plasma volume , stroke volume and increased heart rate and endurance will suffer
What is energy expenditure ?
The sum of basal metabolic rate , the thermic effect of food and the energy expended through physical activity
What is BMR ?
The minimum amount of energy required to sustain essential physiological function at rest
What aspects must be considered to understand individuals energy requirement ?
What is Thermic effect of food ?
The energy required to eat , digest and absorb an use food taken in
What is physical activity energy expenditure ?
The total number of calories required to perform daily tasks
Metabolic equivalent value ?
The ratio of a performers working metabolic rate to their resting metabolic rate
What is energy balance ?
the relationship between energy intake and energy expenditure
If energy intake matches energy expenditure , weight maintained
If energy intake is greater than energy expenditure , weight will be gained
If energy intake is less than energy expenditure the weight will be lost
What are ergogenic aids ?
a substance , object or method used to improve or enhance performance
What are phrenological aids ?
a group of ergogenic aids to increase the levels of hormones or neural transmitters naturally produced by the body
Anabolic steroids ?
A group of illegal synthetic hormones resembling testosterone to promote protein synthesis for muscle growth , recovery and repair
Sprinters and explosive players use the drugs
Negatives of anabolic steroids ?
sperm count decease
breast tissue development
Naturally produced hormone responsible for the production of red blood cells.
Increases oxygen delivery transport , aerobic capacity
Haemoglobin count increase , intensity and duration
Long distance performers
Difficult to detect
Negatives of EPO ?
Decrease cardiac output
risk of blood clots
Viscosity of blood
Human growth hormone ?
synthetic product copying natural growth hormone , to increase protein synthesis for muscle growth , recovery and repair
Mass and strength
Increased glucose levels
Explosive based power athletes
Risks of Human growth hormone ?
Abnormal bone and muscle development
enlargement of vital organs
increase risk of cancer
Intermittent hypoxic training ?
Where the performers live at sea level but train under hypoxic
Increased adaption of environment
Increase red blood cells
haemoglobin count increase
Risks of IHT ?
Any benefit lost
May lose motivation
hard to reach normal rates
decrease immune function