Flashcards in Skeletal and muscular systems Deck (56)
Shaping framework for the body which gives protection for internal organs , is the site for blood cell production and is a mineral store. Crucially human movement the skeleton provides attachments for the muscular system and acts as the levers and pivot points required to create movement
What is a flat bone ?
Act as suitable sites for muscular attachment eg sternum , ribs , cranium
What is a long bone ?
Act as levers for movement and act as sites for blood cell production eg Femur , humours , radius and tibia
What is a irregular bone ?
They have a irregular shape , eg vertebrate
What is a short bone ?
They bear weight eg tarsals and carpals
Sesamoid bones ?
Ease movement and resist compression eg Patella
Define joint ?
An area of the body where two or more bones articulate to create human movement
Define ligament ?
A tough band of fibrous , slightly elastic connective tissue that attaches bone to bone
Define articular cartilage ?
Smooth tissue which covers the surface of articulating bones to absorb shock and allow friction -free movement
Ligament ? Structure and function
Structure - A tough band of slightly elastic connective tissue
Function- Connects bone to bone and stabilises joints during movement
Synovial fluid ? structure and function
Structure - Lubricating liquid contained within the joint cavity
Function- Reduces friction and nourishes articular cartilage
Articular cartilage ? structure and function
Structure -Smooth tissue which covers the surface of articulating bones
Function - Absorbs shock and allows friction - free movement
Joint capsule ? structure and friction
Structure - A fibrous sac with an inner synovial membrane
Function - Encloses and strengthens the joint secreting synovial fluid
Bursa ? structure and friction
Structure - A closed , fluid - filled sac found where tendons rub over bones
Function - Reduces friction between tendons and bones
Plane of movement ?
The description of three dimensional movements at a joint
Movements patterns ?
A description of the actions taking place at a joint
Name the three types of planes ?
Sagittal plane - divides the body into left and right parts of the medial to the lateral
Frontal plane - Divides the body into anterior and posterior
Transverse plane - It divides the body into superior and inferior
Types of joints ?
BALL AND SOCKET
A CYLINDRICAL BONE ARTICULATES WITH A TROUGH - SHAPED BONE HELD TIGHTLY BY LIGAMENTS WHICH LIMIT SIDEWAYS MOVEMENT
A rounded bone articulates with a ring shaped bone which restricts motion to one plane
Almost flat , similar sized bones , articulate with limited motion in three planes
BALL AND SOCKET
A ball shaped head articulates with a cup-shaped socket to give a large range of motion in all three planes
Flat bone to allow motion in two planes
Types of sagittal plane ?
Flexion and extension
Movement which decreases the joint angle
Movement which increases the joint angle
Define dorsi - flexion
Movement at the ankle joint as the toes move up
Define plantar flexion
Movement at the ankle joint as the toes move down
Frontal pane ?