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Flashcards in Skeletal and muscular systems Deck (56)
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1

Skeleton ?

Shaping framework for the body which gives protection for internal organs , is the site for blood cell production and is a mineral store. Crucially human movement the skeleton provides attachments for the muscular system and acts as the levers and pivot points required to create movement

2

What is a flat bone ?

Act as suitable sites for muscular attachment eg sternum , ribs , cranium

3

What is a long bone ?

Act as levers for movement and act as sites for blood cell production eg Femur , humours , radius and tibia

4

What is a irregular bone ?

They have a irregular shape , eg vertebrate

5

What is a short bone ?

They bear weight eg tarsals and carpals

6

Sesamoid bones ?

Ease movement and resist compression eg Patella

7

Define joint ?

An area of the body where two or more bones articulate to create human movement

8

Define ligament ?

A tough band of fibrous , slightly elastic connective tissue that attaches bone to bone

9

Define articular cartilage ?

Smooth tissue which covers the surface of articulating bones to absorb shock and allow friction -free movement

10

Ligament ? Structure and function

Structure - A tough band of slightly elastic connective tissue

Function- Connects bone to bone and stabilises joints during movement

11

Synovial fluid ? structure and function

Structure - Lubricating liquid contained within the joint cavity

Function- Reduces friction and nourishes articular cartilage

12

Articular cartilage ? structure and function

Structure -Smooth tissue which covers the surface of articulating bones

Function - Absorbs shock and allows friction - free movement

13

Joint capsule ? structure and friction

Structure - A fibrous sac with an inner synovial membrane

Function - Encloses and strengthens the joint secreting synovial fluid

14

Bursa ? structure and friction

Structure - A closed , fluid - filled sac found where tendons rub over bones

Function - Reduces friction between tendons and bones

15

Plane of movement ?

The description of three dimensional movements at a joint

16

Movements patterns ?

A description of the actions taking place at a joint

17

Name the three types of planes ?

Sagittal plane - divides the body into left and right parts of the medial to the lateral

Frontal plane - Divides the body into anterior and posterior

Transverse plane - It divides the body into superior and inferior

18

Types of joints ?

HINGE
PIVOT
GLIDING
BALL AND SOCKET
CONDYLOID

19

HINGE

A CYLINDRICAL BONE ARTICULATES WITH A TROUGH - SHAPED BONE HELD TIGHTLY BY LIGAMENTS WHICH LIMIT SIDEWAYS MOVEMENT

20

PIVOT

A rounded bone articulates with a ring shaped bone which restricts motion to one plane

21

GLIDING JOINT

Almost flat , similar sized bones , articulate with limited motion in three planes

22

BALL AND SOCKET

A ball shaped head articulates with a cup-shaped socket to give a large range of motion in all three planes

23

CONDLYOID JOINT

Flat bone to allow motion in two planes

24

Types of sagittal plane ?

Flexion and extension

25

Define flexion

Movement which decreases the joint angle

26

Define extension

Movement which increases the joint angle

27

Define dorsi - flexion

Movement at the ankle joint as the toes move up

28

Define plantar flexion

Movement at the ankle joint as the toes move down

29

Frontal pane ?

Abduction
Adduction

30

Define abduction

Movement of the limbs away from the midline of the body