Flashcards in Preperation and training methods Deck (76)
Why do we need training programmes ?
Designed to meet the individual needs of a performer , specific to their sport.
Name the six principles of training ?
Time and type
Training that is relevant to the performer and their sport.
Training intensity that gradually increases to ensure body adaption.
Intensity of training needs to be high enough to force the body to adapt physiologically
Training needs to be maintained to prevent injury through overuse. Also stopping training you may loose adaptions
Training needs to be suitable for performer to adapt
FITT principle ?
What are the three aims to periodisation ?
Reach physiological peak
What is a Macro - Cycle ?
Long term training plan over a 1 year period
Long term goal
Broken down into meso cycle
What is a Meso cycle ?
Mid term training programme 4-6 weeks
Mid term goal
Several micro cycles
What is a Micro cycle ?
Short term goal
split into individual sessions
What is aerobic capacity ?
The ability of the body to inspire , transport an utilise oxygen to perform sustained periods of aerobic activity
Three systems is aerobic capacity relies on ?
What is V02 Max ?
Maximum volume of Oxygen transported and utilised per minute during exhaustive exercise
Factors affecting V02 max ?
Physiological make up
How does physiological make up affect V02 max ?
The greater the efficiency of the systems the higher the VO2 max
Stronger muscles means more respiring
Capillarization will increase
How does age effect V02 MAX ?
Early 20s VO2 max declines
1% per year
How does V02 max effect gender ?
Female = 15-30 % lower V02 max than males
Females have a higher body fat % than males and smaller lungs , SV and Cardiac output during maximal work
How does training effect VO2 MAX ?
Aerobic training will increase Vo2 max by 10-20 %
increased long term , increased respiratory cells
What is continuous training ?
Involves steady state - low to moderate intensity of work for prolonged period of time. Typical exercises involve large muscle groups , such as jogging. Swimming cycling etc.
What is high intensity training ?
Periods of working followed by periods of recovery
What training variables cause an overload and adaptions ?
Number of reps
Numbers of sets
Duration of recovery
Adaptions to respiratory system due to Aerobic training ?
Strong respiratory Muscles - Increased Mechanics of breathing efficiency Which will increase Maximal lung volumes and decrease Respiratory fatigue
Increased surface area of Alveoli - Increased External gaseous exchange
This leads to Increased volume of oxygen diffused into the blood
Decreased frequency of breathing at rest and during sub maximal exercise
Makes it easier to perform exercise
Adaptions to the cardio-vascular system due to aerobic training ?
Cardiac hypertrophy - increased stroke volume at rest an during exercise and Cardiac output at rest
Increased elasticity of arterial walls - Increased efficiency of vascular shunt mechanism
Increased Vasoconstriction and dilation to redistribute Co
Decreased resting blood pressure and increased blood pressure regulation
Increased blood / Plasma volume - lower blood viscosity and aids blood flow and venas return
Increased number of cells / haemoglobin count - Increase in oxygen carrying capacity and increase gaseous exchange
Capillarization surrounding alveoli and muscle fibres- Increased surface area for blood flow
Increased gaseous exchange
Decreased distance for diffusion
Which leads to : Increased blood flow and oxygen transport to the muscle cell decreased blood pressure
Makes it easier to perform exercise reduces fatigue delays Obia nd increase intensity and duration of performance
Lower risk of coronary heart disease , hyper tension
What is a stroke ?
A blockage in a cerebral artery cutting off oxygenated blood flow to an area of the brain or a burst blood vessel within or on the surface of the brain
What is coronary heart disease ?
The narrowing of coronary arteries reducing oxygenated blood flow to the cardiac muscle
Adaptions to the musculo-skeletal system due to aerobic training ?
Slow oxidative muscle fibre hypertrophy - Increased potential for aerobic energy production
Increase in strength ,decreased energy cost, which delays fatigue
Increased stores of myoglobin - Increased storage and transport of oxygen to mitochondria
Increased of glycogen - Increased aerobic energy fuels and increased duration of performance
Fast oxidative gliotic fibres - Increased aerobic energy production
Increased strength of connective tissue - Tendons and ligaments strengthen and increase joint stability and decreases the risk of injury
Increased thickening of articular cartilage - Increased synovial fluid production
Increased bone mineral density - Increased calcium absorption and increase bone strengthen decrease injury
Which leads to : Increased aerobic capacity production
Easier to perform exercise and reduce fatigue
What is strength ?
The ability of the body to apply a force