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Flashcards in Preperation and training methods Deck (76)
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1

Why do we need training programmes ?

Designed to meet the individual needs of a performer , specific to their sport.

2

Name the six principles of training ?

Specificity
progression
overload
Reversibility
Moderation
Time and type

3

Define Specificity

Training that is relevant to the performer and their sport.

4

Define progression

Training intensity that gradually increases to ensure body adaption.

5

Define overload

Intensity of training needs to be high enough to force the body to adapt physiologically

6

Define Reversibility

Training needs to be maintained to prevent injury through overuse. Also stopping training you may loose adaptions

7

Define moderation

Training needs to be suitable for performer to adapt

8

FITT principle ?

Frequency

Intensity

Time

Type

9

What are the three aims to periodisation ?

Reach physiological peak
Avoid injury
Realistic Goals

10

What is a Macro - Cycle ?

Long term training plan over a 1 year period

Long term goal
Broken down into meso cycle

11

What is a Meso cycle ?

Mid term training programme 4-6 weeks

Mid term goal
Several micro cycles

12

What is a Micro cycle ?

1-3 weeks

Short term goal
split into individual sessions

13

What is aerobic capacity ?

The ability of the body to inspire , transport an utilise oxygen to perform sustained periods of aerobic activity

14

Three systems is aerobic capacity relies on ?

Respiratory system
Cardio-vascular system
Muscular system

15

What is V02 Max ?

Maximum volume of Oxygen transported and utilised per minute during exhaustive exercise

16

Factors affecting V02 max ?

Physiological make up
Age
Gender
Training

17

How does physiological make up affect V02 max ?

The greater the efficiency of the systems the higher the VO2 max

Stronger muscles means more respiring
Capillarization will increase

18

How does age effect V02 MAX ?

Early 20s VO2 max declines
1% per year

19

How does V02 max effect gender ?

Female = 15-30 % lower V02 max than males
Females have a higher body fat % than males and smaller lungs , SV and Cardiac output during maximal work

20

How does training effect VO2 MAX ?

Aerobic training will increase Vo2 max by 10-20 %
increased long term , increased respiratory cells

21

What is continuous training ?

Involves steady state - low to moderate intensity of work for prolonged period of time. Typical exercises involve large muscle groups , such as jogging. Swimming cycling etc.

22

What is high intensity training ?

Periods of working followed by periods of recovery

23

What training variables cause an overload and adaptions ?

Duration
Intensity
Number of reps
Numbers of sets
Duration of recovery

24

Adaptions to respiratory system due to Aerobic training ?

Strong respiratory Muscles - Increased Mechanics of breathing efficiency Which will increase Maximal lung volumes and decrease Respiratory fatigue

Increased surface area of Alveoli - Increased External gaseous exchange

This leads to Increased volume of oxygen diffused into the blood
Decreased frequency of breathing at rest and during sub maximal exercise
Makes it easier to perform exercise

25

Adaptions to the cardio-vascular system due to aerobic training ?

Cardiac hypertrophy - increased stroke volume at rest an during exercise and Cardiac output at rest

Increased elasticity of arterial walls - Increased efficiency of vascular shunt mechanism
Increased Vasoconstriction and dilation to redistribute Co
Decreased resting blood pressure and increased blood pressure regulation

Increased blood / Plasma volume - lower blood viscosity and aids blood flow and venas return

Increased number of cells / haemoglobin count - Increase in oxygen carrying capacity and increase gaseous exchange

Capillarization surrounding alveoli and muscle fibres- Increased surface area for blood flow
Increased gaseous exchange
Decreased distance for diffusion

Which leads to : Increased blood flow and oxygen transport to the muscle cell decreased blood pressure

Makes it easier to perform exercise reduces fatigue delays Obia nd increase intensity and duration of performance


Lower risk of coronary heart disease , hyper tension

26

What is a stroke ?

A blockage in a cerebral artery cutting off oxygenated blood flow to an area of the brain or a burst blood vessel within or on the surface of the brain

27

What is coronary heart disease ?

The narrowing of coronary arteries reducing oxygenated blood flow to the cardiac muscle

28

Adaptions to the musculo-skeletal system due to aerobic training ?

Slow oxidative muscle fibre hypertrophy - Increased potential for aerobic energy production
Increase in strength ,decreased energy cost, which delays fatigue

Increased stores of myoglobin - Increased storage and transport of oxygen to mitochondria


Increased of glycogen - Increased aerobic energy fuels and increased duration of performance

Fast oxidative gliotic fibres - Increased aerobic energy production

Increased strength of connective tissue - Tendons and ligaments strengthen and increase joint stability and decreases the risk of injury

Increased thickening of articular cartilage - Increased synovial fluid production

Increased bone mineral density - Increased calcium absorption and increase bone strengthen decrease injury

Which leads to : Increased aerobic capacity production
Easier to perform exercise and reduce fatigue

29

What is strength ?

The ability of the body to apply a force

30

Static strength ?

Force applied without movement eg Gymnast balanced on the rings