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Flashcards in Extra Deck (17):
1

Explain the difference between statistical and cultural definitions of normality

Statistical: based on the normal distribution curve

Cultural normality : based on norms and values within a certain group

2

How might changes in cultural perceptions of normality have led to the observed statistical differences?

The fact that people see more obese people shifts their notion of what is normal; it becomes accepted, and normal, to eat eat more junk food, take less exercise etc

Thus being obese becomes normal; obesity may be perceived to be related to affluence or attractiveness or health

3

How might obesity affect an individual's health?

Psychological: reduced self-esteem
Physical: difficult to move or keep fit
Social: ostracisation by peers

4

What do we mean by gatekeeper?

A person who controls patients' access (via referral) to specialist / secondary care

5

List advantages of GPs as gatekeepers

Keep people out of expensive secondary care
Continuity of the doctor-patient relationship
Personal advocacy
Patient does not know where to go / appropriate referral / use of resources

6

List disadvantages of GPs as gatekeepers

Patients have less choice in secondary care
Puts stress on GP to know everything about every disease / symptom
Dependent on individual GP knowledge, attitudes, skill, practice organisation
Puts stress on a good doctor-patient relationship
Peeing a GP might increase the time it takes to receive the needed treatment

7

List these 6 social classes

● Professional
● Managerial & technical
● Skilled non-manual
● Skilled manual
● Partly skilled
● Unskilled

8

What are the tree models of stress?

Engineering model
Medico-physiological model
Psychological or transactional model

9

Briefly describe the engineering model

Stress acts as a stimulus which the individual must resist
If the stimulus becomes too intense or prolonged, the individual breaks

10

Define incidince

Number of new cases of a disease in a population in a specified period of time

11

Define prevalence

Number of people in a population with a specific disease at a single point in time or in a defined period of time

12

Approximately how many patients are registered on average with each GP in the NHS in the UK?

1200-2000 patients each

13

Approximately what percentage of illnesses presenting to primary care are referred on to secondary care?

3%

14

Define race

Group of people linked by biological / genetic factors

15

Coping mechanisms

Problem focused (fix problem)
Emotion focused (receive counselling)
Combination of of problem

16

What factors might increase the chance of someone changing their behaviour?

 You think the advantages of change outweigh the disadvantages
 You anticipate a positive response from others to your behaviour change
 There is social pressure for you to change
 You perceive the new behaviour to be consistent with your self-image
 You believe you are able to carry out the new behaviour in a range of circumstances

17

What makes a GP most appropriate professional for patient?

 Aware of current and past medical history
 Aware of social circumstances e.g. family support
 GP has knowledge of a broad range of illnesses and health conditions
 Trusted health professional who is likely to have been known by the patient/family for some time, perhaps lifelong
 GP has role in prevention as well as diagnosing/treating illness/disease i.e. GP is responsible for holistic patient care
 GP likely to be local to Hannah’s home and therefore accessible