Extra Flashcards Preview

FOPC > Extra > Flashcards

Flashcards in Extra Deck (17):

Explain the difference between statistical and cultural definitions of normality

Statistical: based on the normal distribution curve

Cultural normality : based on norms and values within a certain group


How might changes in cultural perceptions of normality have led to the observed statistical differences?

The fact that people see more obese people shifts their notion of what is normal; it becomes accepted, and normal, to eat eat more junk food, take less exercise etc

Thus being obese becomes normal; obesity may be perceived to be related to affluence or attractiveness or health


How might obesity affect an individual's health?

Psychological: reduced self-esteem
Physical: difficult to move or keep fit
Social: ostracisation by peers


What do we mean by gatekeeper?

A person who controls patients' access (via referral) to specialist / secondary care


List advantages of GPs as gatekeepers

Keep people out of expensive secondary care
Continuity of the doctor-patient relationship
Personal advocacy
Patient does not know where to go / appropriate referral / use of resources


List disadvantages of GPs as gatekeepers

Patients have less choice in secondary care
Puts stress on GP to know everything about every disease / symptom
Dependent on individual GP knowledge, attitudes, skill, practice organisation
Puts stress on a good doctor-patient relationship
Peeing a GP might increase the time it takes to receive the needed treatment


List these 6 social classes

● Professional
● Managerial & technical
● Skilled non-manual
● Skilled manual
● Partly skilled
● Unskilled


What are the tree models of stress?

Engineering model
Medico-physiological model
Psychological or transactional model


Briefly describe the engineering model

Stress acts as a stimulus which the individual must resist
If the stimulus becomes too intense or prolonged, the individual breaks


Define incidince

Number of new cases of a disease in a population in a specified period of time


Define prevalence

Number of people in a population with a specific disease at a single point in time or in a defined period of time


Approximately how many patients are registered on average with each GP in the NHS in the UK?

1200-2000 patients each


Approximately what percentage of illnesses presenting to primary care are referred on to secondary care?



Define race

Group of people linked by biological / genetic factors


Coping mechanisms

Problem focused (fix problem)
Emotion focused (receive counselling)
Combination of of problem


What factors might increase the chance of someone changing their behaviour?

 You think the advantages of change outweigh the disadvantages
 You anticipate a positive response from others to your behaviour change
 There is social pressure for you to change
 You perceive the new behaviour to be consistent with your self-image
 You believe you are able to carry out the new behaviour in a range of circumstances


What makes a GP most appropriate professional for patient?

 Aware of current and past medical history
 Aware of social circumstances e.g. family support
 GP has knowledge of a broad range of illnesses and health conditions
 Trusted health professional who is likely to have been known by the patient/family for some time, perhaps lifelong
 GP has role in prevention as well as diagnosing/treating illness/disease i.e. GP is responsible for holistic patient care
 GP likely to be local to Hannah’s home and therefore accessible