Flashcards in Extra Deck (17):
Explain the difference between statistical and cultural definitions of normality
Statistical: based on the normal distribution curve
Cultural normality : based on norms and values within a certain group
How might changes in cultural perceptions of normality have led to the observed statistical differences?
The fact that people see more obese people shifts their notion of what is normal; it becomes accepted, and normal, to eat eat more junk food, take less exercise etc
Thus being obese becomes normal; obesity may be perceived to be related to affluence or attractiveness or health
How might obesity affect an individual's health?
Psychological: reduced self-esteem
Physical: difficult to move or keep fit
Social: ostracisation by peers
What do we mean by gatekeeper?
A person who controls patients' access (via referral) to specialist / secondary care
List advantages of GPs as gatekeepers
Keep people out of expensive secondary care
Continuity of the doctor-patient relationship
Patient does not know where to go / appropriate referral / use of resources
List disadvantages of GPs as gatekeepers
Patients have less choice in secondary care
Puts stress on GP to know everything about every disease / symptom
Dependent on individual GP knowledge, attitudes, skill, practice organisation
Puts stress on a good doctor-patient relationship
Peeing a GP might increase the time it takes to receive the needed treatment
List these 6 social classes
● Managerial & technical
● Skilled non-manual
● Skilled manual
● Partly skilled
What are the tree models of stress?
Psychological or transactional model
Briefly describe the engineering model
Stress acts as a stimulus which the individual must resist
If the stimulus becomes too intense or prolonged, the individual breaks
Number of new cases of a disease in a population in a specified period of time
Number of people in a population with a specific disease at a single point in time or in a defined period of time
Approximately how many patients are registered on average with each GP in the NHS in the UK?
1200-2000 patients each
Approximately what percentage of illnesses presenting to primary care are referred on to secondary care?
Group of people linked by biological / genetic factors
Problem focused (fix problem)
Emotion focused (receive counselling)
Combination of of problem
What factors might increase the chance of someone changing their behaviour?
You think the advantages of change outweigh the disadvantages
You anticipate a positive response from others to your behaviour change
There is social pressure for you to change
You perceive the new behaviour to be consistent with your self-image
You believe you are able to carry out the new behaviour in a range of circumstances