Social-economic and Political Influences on Health Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Social-economic and Political Influences on Health Deck (14):
1

What does the Whitehall II study show?

Health inequalities among British Civil Servants: trend shows that as you go down the salary scale, the health is worse (i.e. higher prevalence of ischaemic heart disease, bronchitis)

2

Are there disease of the affluent?

No, al diseases are more common in the poorest and in unequal societies

3

Give 4 reasons for the social and economic gradient of health

Access to healthcare
Environmental exposures (physical and social)
Health behaviours
Life course factors

4

What three factors influence an individuals access to healthcare and explain them?

Affordability - healthcare is free but money for transport, time of work, childcare

Accessibility - right service close enough, some people travel days to get there

Acceptability - trust in healthcare providers

5

What is the trend in the hip and knee replacement in England?

In the most deprived, on a third were likely to get the replacement

6

Why might the most deprived not be seeking treatment (i.e. hip replacement)?

Lower expectation of own health
GP might not be referring - unconscious discrimination
Surgeons not putting them on lists (as no family support to push)

7

What is the physiological response to psychological distress?

Increased blood pressure
Impaired glucose tolerance
Immune dysregulation
Oxidative cellular stress with accelerated ageing

Shows why unequal societies are more unhealthy than equal societies

8

What are 2 health behaviours that influence health?

Health seeking and adherence behaviours - ability to stick to plan of course of treatment, literacy

Risk health behaviours - more smoking and sedentary behaviour in lower income groups

9

Name 4 chronic diseases of lifestyle

Obesity
High blood pressure
Diabetes
Cardiovascular disease

10

What problems in the foetus affects health?

Inadequate nutrition to foetus - born with ability to conserve energy (adapted to not each as much)
Foetal alcohol syndrome - can be reversed if good nutrition in early childhood

11

What are 5 childhood experiences that can effect adult health?

Nutrition
Trauma
Nurture
Optimism
Education

12

What are 3 things the government can do to reduce exposure to health risks?

Legislation - passing law
Regulation
Taxation

13

Why does the government not impose restrictions on non-communicable diseases like it does for control of infectious diseases?

Anti-business to control what people eating and drinking

Smoking packaging in Australia have to have relates disease on it

Label of chronic lifestyle disease so people think that with education about the problems, people will change lifestyle

14

What are 5 actions taken by the government to promote health?

Legislations/policies on smoking/alcohol (i.e. minimum age to buy products)
Improvements on housing
Provision of health education
Health and safety laws
Traffic/transport legislation/policies