Flashcards in Social-economic and Political Influences on Health Deck (14):
What does the Whitehall II study show?
Health inequalities among British Civil Servants: trend shows that as you go down the salary scale, the health is worse (i.e. higher prevalence of ischaemic heart disease, bronchitis)
Are there disease of the affluent?
No, al diseases are more common in the poorest and in unequal societies
Give 4 reasons for the social and economic gradient of health
Access to healthcare
Environmental exposures (physical and social)
Life course factors
What three factors influence an individuals access to healthcare and explain them?
Affordability - healthcare is free but money for transport, time of work, childcare
Accessibility - right service close enough, some people travel days to get there
Acceptability - trust in healthcare providers
What is the trend in the hip and knee replacement in England?
In the most deprived, on a third were likely to get the replacement
Why might the most deprived not be seeking treatment (i.e. hip replacement)?
Lower expectation of own health
GP might not be referring - unconscious discrimination
Surgeons not putting them on lists (as no family support to push)
What is the physiological response to psychological distress?
Increased blood pressure
Impaired glucose tolerance
Oxidative cellular stress with accelerated ageing
Shows why unequal societies are more unhealthy than equal societies
What are 2 health behaviours that influence health?
Health seeking and adherence behaviours - ability to stick to plan of course of treatment, literacy
Risk health behaviours - more smoking and sedentary behaviour in lower income groups
Name 4 chronic diseases of lifestyle
High blood pressure
What problems in the foetus affects health?
Inadequate nutrition to foetus - born with ability to conserve energy (adapted to not each as much)
Foetal alcohol syndrome - can be reversed if good nutrition in early childhood
What are 5 childhood experiences that can effect adult health?
What are 3 things the government can do to reduce exposure to health risks?
Legislation - passing law
Why does the government not impose restrictions on non-communicable diseases like it does for control of infectious diseases?
Anti-business to control what people eating and drinking
Smoking packaging in Australia have to have relates disease on it
Label of chronic lifestyle disease so people think that with education about the problems, people will change lifestyle