Flashcards in Psychological Influences on Health Deck (20):
What were the leading causes of death in the US in 2000?
Poor diet and physical inactivity
How can psychological factors influence health?
Indirectly: changing behaviours that affect health
Directly: change in hormones and/or heart rate
What are healthy behaviours strongly associated with?
CBD or cerbrovascualr disease
Type 2 diabetes
Give an example of behaviours of individuals that could affect their health
Link between obese women and not using contraception, increasing their risk of STIs
Young people drinking and unintended pregnancies
What are the top risk factors in Scotland?
Exceeding drinking guidelines
Not enough veg or fruit
High salt intake
Not active enough
Saturated fat, highly processed food - diabetes
55% have 3 or more risk behaviours
How can risky behaviours impact people?
Impact beyond health and impact on mental health, families and communities (especially alcohol related harm) and the economy through absenteeism.
What are the two systems that influence behaviour?
Reflective system - behaviour as a result of our goals which reflects our values and where aware of what were doing
Automatic system - impulse
What are choices we makes influenced by?
Large scale social context (i.e. economy)
Physical environment - i.e. availability of cheap and unhealthy food or no cycling lanes less likely to cycle
What are the 3 factors of the behaviours change theory?
Personal (beliefs, attitudes, knowledge)
Environment/social (culture, location, income)
What are the 5 concepts of the Social Cognitive Theory that influence a an individuals behaviour?
According to SCT, what factors can influence behaviour and why?
Personal: belief in the ability to change (self-efficacy), the outcomes of changed behaviour and how important these consequences are to them
Behaviour: how habitual or autonomic it is
Environment: facilitators like social supports, barriers or perceived barriers such as time or money
These all interact with each other
Define self efficacy
Belief in the ability to change
For info/knowledge to influence behaviour, what must it be?
Relevant to goals
Readily available at moment of decision or action
What does self-efficacy underpin?
Persistence in face of barriers
Recovery from setbacks
What is the use of the General Self-Efficacy Scale?
To assess optimistic self-beliefs to cope with a variety of difficult demands in life
What is the choice architectures?
The environment in which an individual make choices. Changing the way options are presented or altering the social and physical environment can make it much more likely that a particular choice becomes the natural or default preference.
Individuals may often be unaware of the effect that changes in the choice architecture have on their individual choices and actions.
What are nudges?
Prompt choices without getting people to consider their options consciously, and therefore do not include openly persuasive interventions such as media campaigns and the straightforward provision of information
What are the behaviours change recommendations for NICE in 2007?
Take account of the circumstances in which people live, especially socioeconomic and cultural context
Build on people's strengths and skills
Tailor interventions to tackle beliefs, attitudes, intentions and knowledge with the target behaviour
What are the NICE key concepts when trying to influence an individuals behaviours?
- Outcome expectancies – provide knowledge about health consequences
- Personal relevance – emphasising personal importance of health behaviours
- Positive attitude – promoting positive feeling towards the outcomes of behaviour change
- Self-efficacy – enhancing their beliefs of ability to change
- Descriptive norms – promoting visibility of positive health behaviours
- Subjective norms – enhancing social approval for positive health behaviours
- Personal and moral norms – promote personal and moral commitments to behaviour change
- Intention formation and concrete plans – forms a plan and goals for change
- Behaviours contracts – sharing their plans and goals with others
- Relapse prevention – helping people develop skills to cope with difficult situation and conflicting goals